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CRCJ 1000 Lecture Notes - Environmental Design, Routine Activity Theory, Jeremy Bentham

Criminology and Criminal Justice
Course Code
CRCJ 1000
Nicolas Carrier

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CRCJ 1000
Lecture Notes
March 5th 2013
*Notes from last week’s lecture
Conditional Release: Medical, family, community service
Cannot be in a federal prison moreover a medium security prison
Depends on length of sentence
Work Release: 1/6 or 6 Months
Working in the community to gain some skills
Framed as the project of rehabilitation
No Longer Then 60 Days
Day Parole: Provincial 1/6, federal varies with length of sentence
Access to this at 1/6 of the sentence
Full Parole
Available after you serve 1/3 of your sentence
Example: infractions related to drugs
Granted less than 25% of requests (3/4 chance refusal for parole will be given)
Reoffending occurs on those who are on parole
Statutory Release
- Usually 2/3 of sentence, sentence done under supervision
- Increased restrictions and electronic monitoring
Classical and Neoclassical Criminology (Week 7)
Classical Criminology (Jeremy Bentham & Cesare Beccaria
Neo-Classical Criminology (more governmental based type of criminology)
Main Basis: how can make it less likely for crime to happen (deterrence through prison sentences)
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I. Classical Criminology
Enlightenment: we are free will individuals
Emphasis is based on freedom, rights and equality (putting in force of regulation)
Sees violence as uncivilized behavior
Philosophers claim punishment should be with reason- leading to utilitarianism
Utilitarianism: the greatest good for the greatest number
Cesare Beccaria
- Penal Minimalism
- Crime as Unjust Profit
- Crime as rational strategy
Beccaria believed that people commit crimes depending on the greater profit
Punishment (reason > passion)
Utility of Punishment
- Cruelty habituates people towards violence
- Instead of seeing victory of law, we create anger towards political power
- Punishment should no longer be public/violent should be quick and moderate
- Celerity: enlightening the vulgar ones (justice must be done to show people the consequences
of committing the certain crime
- Certainty: there must be a level of certainty
- Moderation: means punishing the individual in just a right amount to produce a deterrent effect
Jeremy Bentham
- Protecting citizens from sovereign power
- People are asking for more protection by the state
- If you cannot produce that punishment does not show deterrence, then punishment should not
- Panopticon: a prison design that Bentham proposed
You would never know if you were being watched or not
Building prisons like this, would allow prisoners to reform their selves since they are being
watched at all times.
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