CRCJ 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Environmental Design, Routine Activity Theory, Broken Windows Theory

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Criminology
Oct 23
Conditional Release
-submit an application at any time for ETA. Temporarily outside prison, short amount of hours or days
-submit an application of UTA depends on length of sentence. Also depends on security level. (Max,
medium, minimum)
Work Release
-prepare reintegration learning skills. Max of 60 days. Available at 1/6 of sentence or 6 months of
sentence, whichever is longer?
Day parole
-spend day out in public and nights in jail. Sentence less than 2 yrs. than you are allowed day parole
after 1/6 of sentence
Full parole
-technically finish sentence in community. However a lot of people breach parole regulations and go
back to prisons.
-Available after 1/3 of sentence.
-They are becoming harder to get (Drug and violent arrest= ½ of sentence must be completed for full
parole)
-70% percent success rate, so they are no violations of conditions of parole. 30% go back to jail. And 20%
of that 30% is simply violations of conditions, so usually not an actual crime committed.
Fauteux Report
-best way to protect is to rehabilitate
-in order to prevent multiple offences is to pay attention to individuals
-criminals are victims of society (they are poor, mental illness etc..)
-crime is a result of inequality
-written in sociological context when there wasn’t a lot of tolerance for diversity
Daubney Report
-best way to help society is not rehabilitation, incapacitation is.
-so the parole board moved from a program of help towards risk management
-today in parole board, individual has to prove he has changed and is better person.
-we are too soft on criminals.
-most important factor in PBC is protection of society, if individual is a risk, he is not granted parole.
-result is people spend more time in prisons which increases its population.
Statutory Release
-used to be automatic. After 2/3 completed in halfway house
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-now there are more restrictions
-ex: life sentence or dangerous offenders are examples of people who don’t get statutory release
-child porn and level 2 assault of police officer requires full sentence
-statutory release is for people who were refused parole.
Neoclassicism
-not interested in the act. Point of focus is decisions or context or criminal opportunity.
-what should be done to act on crime?
-crime is a normal choice
Classical Criminology
-Beccaria and Lombroso both fathers of criminology
-Beccaria’s impact is felt more in criminal justice then criminology
-enlightenment period: a project to reorganize society, to rethink foundation of order outside of
traditions and religion
-human act on free will
-rethinking human actions out of realm of destiny.
-sovereign power will become expression of people’s rule
-punishment should be manifestation of reason
-beccaria wants to establish rational standards to punish. Reasons to inflict pain
-Elias wrote about government removing violence from social life. Privatization of pain.
Rational-legal authority
-no longer traditional or charisma founded on reason and it will construct a bureaucracy
Utilitarianism
-political philosophy
-theory of justice
-aims to identify conditions of just society
-what forms of punishment is just?
-best society is the one where happiness level as at its peak
-limitation of displeasure
-Penal minimalist position, use criminal law as least as possible.
-Becarria: assumes people have free will, actions are for pleasure or avoidance of pain
Criticism of Nozick
-focus on pleasure is doomed.
-ex: Brave New World
On crime and Punishment: Cesare Becarria
-punishment should be proportional to crime and not used excessively. Particularly against crime that
don’t threaten social fabric of society
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