CRCJ 4001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Incident Response Team, Blood Transfusion, Excited Delirium

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CRCJ 4001
Feb 1
Contract and Aboriginal policing
-responsible for managing areas of contract policing within the RCMP which also includes procinve,
territory, municipal.
-outside On and QC, RCMP does provincial policing
-CAP deals with front line with policy, operational and latest research.
-for example new research into impaired by drug devices, body cameras and use of force.
-technology very much integrated in research and policy decisions.
Police use of force
-only about 12 shooting deaths from police per year
-0.12% of calls lead to use of force.
-authority to use force is in criminal code. Based on two principles. Reasonableness and necessity.
Incident management/intervention model
-guide when to apply force
-6 basic principles (google them)
Risk assessment
-situational factors: environment, who’s involved, how many people etc…
-subject behaviours: cooperative, passive resistance, active resistant, assaultive and threat.
-officer perception: officer experience, officer strength, fatigue, fears, gender, sight, cultural
-tactical considerations: which weapons, if any to use, officer apearace, backup geographic
considerations, number of officers etc..
-this leads you to level of interventions: verbal, soft control, hard control, less lethal weapons, police
dog, lethal weapon.
Tenants of use of force
-reasonable and necessary.
-reasonable should be judged from perspective of reasonable officer from the scene. Means split second
decisions making rather than hindsight.
-police officers get their schemas from experience. What is reasonable for a police officer is different
from regular civilian. For example, police will see someone figeting in pocket as potentially threating
while citizens wont pick up on this.
Use of force training
-cadet get approx. 100hrs of use of force training.
-annual training of 8hrs.
-scenario based training has increased. Still different than real life scenario.
Critical incident stress
-looking at heart rate and decision making. Heart rate must be combined with stressfull event for it to
deter performance
-low amount of arousal wont give good performance. Too much arousal leads to stress.
-CIS leads to auditory exclusion, visual impairment, selective attention etc..
find more resources at
find more resources at
Reaction, movement & response time
-action precedes reaction.
-types of attentional focus: broad external, broad internal, narrow external, narrow internal
-Be: rapidly assess
-BI: analyse and plan
-NE: focus on only one or two external cues
-NI: mentally rehearse an action or control an emotional state.
Performance errors
-officer mistakes his gun for taser and accidentally shoots an arrested person.
-this has led to changes in placement of taser on holster.
-performance errors in policing can lead to fatal consequences.
Body worn video
-limitations: there will still be issues with implementation of cameras.
-camera doest follow eyes
-danger cues not recorded
-speed differs
-camera sees better
-body blocks view
-camera is in 2d
-obsence of time stamping
-once camera not enough
-encourages second guessing
-never replaces a thorough investigation.
-having video on all the time creates mass amount of data. Issues with storing and retention
Subject behaviour/officer response reporting
-notes allow officers to explain to judge or jusy what they did in given moment of time give the
-officers need to complete use of force reports. This outlines clearly and consisley the events occurred
-officer is expected to paint verbal picture with plain language of perceptions at the time of event
-majority of use force is of the lower end.
Readings (white reading)
-examined the taser use of one police department over a 2 year period
-agency being evaluated had restricted taser policy. Only supervisors and emergency response team
have tasers.
-could only be used on EDP (emotionally disturbed person) who is acting in a way that might result in
physical injury to self or others.
-study did not address potential injuries associated with taser use.
-problems with the violence escalation scale used. Not very accurate.
-edp often encompasses people with mental illness.
find more resources at
find more resources at
-those with tasers have been trained with it.
-taser was primarily used against black males with avg age of 35. Suspect was not under influence of
drugs alcohol 85% of time
-Most suspects considered EDP, less than half had weapons, almost all exhibited violent behaviour,
backup was almost always present.
-Study also measured effectiveness. Majority of time only one use was necessary, stun gun was more
effective than shooting taser.
-80% of time officer was satisfied with use
Conducted energy weapon
-push stun: pain compliance. Direct attaching.
-the stun shots are shot out and attach to skin.
-graph shows the decrease use of taser.
-the TASER is most often used as deterent. Drawn but not deployed.
-probe has more variables with it which makes it less reliable. Stuns have to stick to offenders, cant miss
-many times individuals stuned are EDP, armed.
-overall injury rate around 3%.
-injuries are normally related to the subject falling after being stunned.
-hard physical control have higher rate of injuries.
Reading (Oriola)
-Tasers are being used against specific populations. Low income, marginalized populations targetd
-guest lecturer basically shits on the article
-argues that many of the taser related deaths reported in paper where not in fact due to taser but other
-critiques the authors use of unnecessary jargon.
-TASERS cannot on their cause death, their must be other factors at play.
-biologically plausible but not likely.
Excited delirium syndrome
-psychiatric and drug use combined.
-state of extreme mental and physiological excitement. Extreme agitation, hyperthermia, hostility,
strength and endurance.
-associated with stimulants like cocaine.
-DSM does not include excited delirium syndrome.
-ACEP and NAME do recognize excited delirium syndrome.
-most research is done on fatal cases. Look at precursors.
-now more research on non fatal cases has begun
-catecholamine are released and activates fight or flight.
-during physical exertion acidosis builds up and could lead to sudden cardiac arrest.
Features of excited delirium syndrome
find more resources at
find more resources at