Lecture 6 Criminology CRCJ 1000C IINTRODUCTION TO CRIME THEORIESAND BIOLOGICAL THEORIES OF CRIME Classical School; Positivist School; Conflict theory (Marxism); Consensus theory; Italian School; Phrenology; Twin and family studies; Eugenics and stupidity theories; Brain injuries; Biocriminology and genetics; The warrior gene. Required readings: I. Course Reader, Pp. 119144, 145166. OUTLINE: Introduction to crime theories: Biological Theories of Crime Classical Precursors to Bio Positivism Functionalist Inherited Criminal Characteristics Marxism Constitutional Theories Positivism The Harvard School The Italian School Altered State Theories NATURE VS NURTURE: CRIME THEORIES Major theories are sociology, psychology, and biology informed. Others do not fit squarely into these three major streams Boyd: Theories are not opinions but testable, repeatable, academicallyinformed hypotheses. All of these theories explain different ways why crime and deviance happen THE TASK OF CRIMINOLOGY Challenging common sense presumptions One of the tasks of criminology is to unravel, or deconstruct, the concept of crime and in the process challenge commonsense understandings that are taken for granted> (Tim Tierney). Sandra Walklate (2003): What criminologies do sometimes resonates with common sense thinking about crime but often challenges that thinking. Boyd: The importance of thinking critically. Without a theoretical foundation, we have ungrounded, fragmented opinions rather than a disciplined, scientific approach to exploring and explaining crime and deviance (120121). Criminology is an empirically based social science. MAJOR THEORIES OF CRIME 1. Classical 2. Functionalism 3. Marxism 4. Positivism Also discussed in Chapter 6 Differential association (Lecture 11) Chicago School (environment, Lecture 11) Rational choice theory (Lecture 10) Psychoanalysis (Lecture 10) Social learning theory (Lecture 10 and Lecture 11) CESARE BECCARIA(17381794) On Crimes and Punishment (1764) He was a theorist and started as a prison reformer Liberal Classical school Not a schoolin the sense that we may think of schools today; lived at different times and in different countries.