Crim lecture nov 6.odt

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Carleton University
Criminology and Criminal Justice
CRCJ 1000
Nicolas Carrier

Psychological Theories • Freud created the psychoanalytic theory and it is ridiculed because it is deemed non scientific • Psychoanalytic theory states that personality is a conflict between eros and thanatos • Eros is the drive for life and thanatos is the drive for drive • Consciousness is a product of social forces • Freud made the ID, Ego and Superego • Id is the pleasure principle • Ego is governed by the reality principle. Demand by the unconsciouss are mediated by the ego and take into account the environment. • Superego which is the consciousness of the individual. It will activate guilt and shame. • Crime happens because they are seeking to be punished so they can resolve inner tension • Alexander Healy said people steal cars because they seek punishment to restore inter psychic balance • Weak superego means that you will create a lot of crime and this is a psychopath • Marcuse's used Freud to say that people are controlled in society not through violence or threat of law it is through consumption and the illusion of choice. Society gives them choice in material objects for example having the choice between picking a pepsi and coke. • Photo report thought that criminals were victims of society and the freud modelled was used to explain this. Learning Theories • Classical conditioning is when you are able to condition someone into doing something. For example when dogs salivate and the sound of a bell • Skinner was about operant conditioning and positive and negative reinforcement. • Bandura's social learning theory is when you imitate people on what they are doing. You can learn by observing others. External reinforcement is from people you care about and internal reinforcement is the sense of pride Cognitive Theories • This approach is associated with Yochelson and Samenow in 1976 with the book of The Criminal Personality • Cognitive theories are the thinking patterns of criminal behavior. • If you want to stop crime then you gotta intervene with the criminal. You shouldn't chang eth enevironment but the way the criminal think • They identified 52 cognitive errors Psychometric • Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, personality traits, and educational measurement. • Psychopath concpetion came from Cleckley's The Mask of Sanity • To be a psychopath you have to have a score of 30 or higher in the psychometrics. There are 21 things that are measured and you get a socre of 0, 1 or 2 • MMPI-2-RF is another scale used to measure people that are in jail • Hypochondriasis is the concern with bodily symptoms • Depression is depression • Hysteria is the awareness of problems • Psychopathic deviance is the conflict to respect society's rules • Hypo-mania is the level of excitability • Social introversion is the people orientation • What works movement was created byAndrews and Bonta's • It is an risk-need-responsivity model • Dynamic factor are factors that are [plastic and you can change, static factors you cannot change • Andrew want to lower the % of reoccurring offenders • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapeutic approach that addresses dysfunctional emotions, maladaptive behaviors and cognitive processes and contents through a number of goal-oriented, explicit systematic procedures. • Developmental criminology takes into account various developmental changes within the individual, with respect to the changes or stability of the environment, to formulate strategies that help to discriminate between correlates and causes of crime. Evolutionary Psychology • The main function of this is to reproduce the strongest offspring. • Theory of rape is that the people that are pushy will be passed on to the next generation • Buss theory of homicide says that homicide is done to have the best people in world and the strongest • The negative thing is that it talks about the criminal actor and not the criminal act. • Theory of gender gap in crime says that females should spend
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