Sutherlands DifferentialAssociation Theory
• He is responsible for taking out biology from criminology
• People who commit crime learn it just like tieing our shoes
• Crime is learned by having relationships for example being associated with criminals you will
• Cannot account for irrational criminal activity such as just losing it and committing crime
• Ethnography means doing the portrayal of a particular culture
• Chicago school said if you want to know people then you have to live with them
• Cohen wanted to understand why there is a link between poverty and crime
• He says social class and crime is a result of school failure and people from working classes will
join in gangs as an adaptation to the failure of school.
• School emphasized control of the self and they implemented middle class values and the youth
would form into gangs to gain a positive look on themselves
• Crime is a defense mechanism to the frustration experienced at school
• British tradition ended up studying styles and fashion and leads to cultural studies.
• Cloward and Ohlin made a correction to Merton's strain theory which was when you are in
opportunities of strain and you don’t have the ways of achieving success then you have
illegitimate means to achieve it.
• Criminal subculture is more likely to develop in neighborhoods that are poor but well
• Conflict subcul'ture is more violent and about controlling the terriotry and gaining status.
• Retreatist subculture is about people who arent able to make it into the mainstreeam culture,
criminal subculture and conflict so they retreat to drug use.
• The subculture of violence talks about why mostly black people are in jail.
• Wolfgang said there are subcultures that are ok with violence and it is ormal for them
• This lead to the code of the street, culture of honor and hypermasculinty
• Matza “Technique of neutralization” and he was reacting to the work of Cohen and he said we
don't need this device of subculture and we need to realise that the deliquent is using the ????
• Denial of responsibility is saying that it is not your fault and that you are just following order
• Denial of injury says that even though you committed crime they are rich and will buy another
• Denial of the victim which means saying that they are asking to get a crime committed to them .
• Appeal to higher loyalities means that if you didn't commit a crime then they would have
• Condemnation of the condemners means that the people with power for example parole officers
say it is ok to committ crime for example smoking that bomb ass dank.
• Work of Matza made us realise that people committing crime are in a different cultural world and we need to be careful
• Cultural criminology is about refusing mainstream criminology because they are dehumanizing,
fail to account for emotiona nd motivation.
• Mainstream criminology gets their stats and facts from artifical setting
• Edgework refers to extreme sports such as skydiving and this relates to crime because people
take risk when committing crime.
• Criminlogical verstehen means to understand the criminals perspective.
• Anarchist criminology is when you rebutt society and create crime for example the G-20
– Control theories suggest instead of exampling why people do nasty stuff
– Symbolic interactionism is the philospohy on human actions that will lead to this idea that
crime will be caused by crime control
– Social control is how we define and react to obdience
– Social problems is about how something is made a problem
– Moral panics is why people over react to stuff
– Not asking why people do bad things but why there are so little crime. Explain conformity
rather than deviance
– Hirschi said there is a universality of animal impulses which means that people have natural
impluses to committ crime. ?
– Reiss said that crime is a failure of personal and social controls
– Containement theory by Reckless says that our society is so indiviudalistic and there isn't much
crime. The answer is we have inner and outward containment that protects us from forces that
are pushing and pulling towards crime.
– External pressures to committ crime such as someone pisses you off.
– Internal pressures such as being aggressive in nature
– From the outisde containments we can influence crime by having a good family, school,
participation in meaningful activity
– Inner containments are the belief system of the individual. The conecept of self and if you see
yourself as a criminal. Goal orientation and the ability to deal with frustration.
– Hirschi says the criminal is not the person who from the outset is different but it is a lack of a
strong bond to society
– 4 control variables according to Hirschi which makes i