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Criminology and Criminal Justice
CRCJ 1000
Jeffrey Mohonogan

WK 2 CRCJ 1000d What is a crime? What is criminology? Required readings: Henry, Stuart and Mark Lanier (2001). “Crime in Context: The Scope of the Problem,” in What is Crime? Controversies over the nature of crime and what to do about it. Edited by Mark Lanier and Stuart Henry. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, Pp. 1-18. Rafter, Nicole (2011). “Origins of Criminology” in What is criminology? Edited by Mary Bosworth and Carolyn Holye. Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, Pp 143-154. ================ Outline and Core Concepts What is criminology? History of criminology as a ‘science’ of crime and society Rafter Gold digging ‘procedural approach’ Pre-criminology 1. Social Contract Liberalism: Crisis of middle ages Rule of law harm Beccaria Rationalism Penal invention freedom 2. Industrialization Marxism Social Reforms 3. Positivism Scientific revolution Def of positivism Emergence of criminology; Rafter’s two stages Cottage industry Barriers to criminological development Multi disciplinary Multiple languages Earl Lombroso Lombroso & The Italian School Emergence of criminology as a discipline Scientific racism BREAK Rafter’s three core themes 1. Moral insanity 2. Human evolution 3. Crime as a social phenomena .> centred around topic But what is a crime? Definitions of crime Classical Positivist Legal Normative (Durkheim) Critical Contemporary debates around legal definition-plus Lanier and Henry: “The problem of context” Understanding criminalization / decriminalization Contemporary criminology Walklate’s 5 ties that bind Rafter’s ‘procedural approach’ Next week’s readings. What is Criminology? th Term criminology comes into disciplinary standing in late 19 century: .> ‘criminology’ as a discipline for the structured/systematic study of crime and society in the late 19 century Rafter’s two conceptual frameworks: the gold-digging and the procedural. Rafter advocates a “procedural approach” for the ‘science’ of criminology .> “[an approach] that conceives of criminology more like a river, an ongoing effort flowing through time, hitting rocks, absorbing current, from other fields, picking up new methods or concepts as it travels, eddying back to reconsider earlier findings, sometimes allowing work – even good work – to wash up on the rivers banks” Pre-criminology Three prominent transformations to western society are the undercurrent to the development of criminology as a structured discipline: 1) social contract (liberal revolution); 2) urbanizaiton/industrialization; 3; scientific revolution (positivism) 1. social contract (liberal revolution); Social Contract Liberalism: early process of democratization: initial architecture of the rule of law theories of individual rights and the Harm principle Harm principle On Liberty [Book]: John Stuart Mill's Rationalism and the rule of reason; Beccaria “On Crimes and Punishment” (1764) .> major figure in ‘classical’ school of criminology. “In order that punishment should not be an act of violence perpertrated by one or many upon a private citizen, it is essential that it should be public, speedy, necessary, the minimum possible in the given circumstances, proportionate to crime, and determined by the law” (Beccaria, 1764: 113). “penitentiary invention”” .> prison reformist movement (late 18c) .> birth of modern prison and a definite form of punishment 2. Industrialization .> Mass urbanisation. .>High rates of crime, deluge of social problems .>Marxism and social inequity as basis for understanding crime .>Engels' Condition of the Working Class in Britain (1845). Engels: The working class, "with no means of making fitting use of its freedom" turns to drink and sex which are carried to excess [423]. This excess is related to poverty and insecurity: what is the point in deferred gratification and 'respectability' when there is no security in life [4:424] “ Social Reforms 3. positivism .>Scientific revolution .>Def of positivism: “Muncie (2001): “A theoretical approach that emerged in the early nineteenth century which argues that social relations and events (including crime) can be studied scientifically using methods derived from the natural sciences. Its aim is to search for, explain and predict future patterns of social behaviours.” .>based on the urban too. ‘the threat of the urban crowd’ ‘surplus population’ .> boom of literature about the dangers and menace of the crowd .> centrality of science, scientific methods. Rafter’s Barriers to Criminological emergence .> 1. Language .> 2. multi-disciplinarily Rafter’s Emergence of criminology; two stages 1. Cottage industry: late 18 to Criminal Man 2. Criminal Man, post-1876 to early 1890s when the term ‘criminology’ was typified .> much disagreement, but concensus on the science of crime Lombroso and The Italian School .> shift to the NATURE of the criminal; vs rationalism of Beccaria .> concept of atavism. .> atavistic individuals were ‘the born criminals’ “Whoever has read this book will have to come to the conclusion that many of the characteristics found in savages, and among the colored races, are also very often to be found in habitual criminals. They are: thinning hair, lack of strength and weight, low cranial capacity, receding foreheads, highly developed frontal sinuses, a high frequency of media-frontal sutures… darker skin, thicker, curly hair, large or handle-shaped ears, a greater analogy between the two sexes, a lesser c
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