Etiological Criminology: Body & Psyche
ii. Psychological Theories
- Freud: Eros: aggressively, desires that are not mediated by social norms, refers to all
that which you might desire and a lot of that will be socially unacceptable which creates
a lot of inner tension and Thanatos: death drive, instinct to put an end to these inner
tensions that are generated by the impulses in society. Some conscious, most of which
are not – Freud. Consciousness being a social product, the large part of identity and
personality is the result of socialization, social norms clashes with impulses.
- Psychosexual Development
- Superego: unconscious mechanism that stores the norms that we have internalized.
Moral sight of impulses. Guilt. Superego makes civilization possible in the first place
- Id: opposite of superego
- Ego: conscious structure that is caught in between the id and superego and is the
mediator of mostly unconscious demands based on the reality principle
- Classical Conditioning: Pavlovian: The drooling dog and bell
- Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: Skinner box: We learn according to the
consequences of our own choices and these actions are either reinforced or punished
positively or negatively. Four types:
1. Positive reinforcement: getting something pleasurable
2. Negative Reinforcement: getting something taken away that you enjoy
3. Positive Punishment: law
4. Negative Punishment:
- Bandura’s Social Learning Theory: a lot of learning is consequences of behaviours
1. Vicarious Reinforcement: if you see someone getting something that they want as
soon as they are violent, then you can vicarious learn that violence is a good way to
get what you want. 2. External Reinforcement: the social improvement of others.
3. Internal Reinforcement: sense of pride and accomplishment.
Used a lot and stimulated a lot of research in trying to validate