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Lecture 8

CRCJ 1000 Mar12th Lec8.docx

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Carleton University
Criminology and Criminal Justice
CRCJ 1000
Nicolas Carrier

CRCJ 1000 Lec 8 th March 12 Etiological Criminology: Body & Psyche ii. Psychological Theories Psychodynamic Theories - Freud: Eros: aggressively, desires that are not mediated by social norms, refers to all that which you might desire and a lot of that will be socially unacceptable which creates a lot of inner tension and Thanatos: death drive, instinct to put an end to these inner tensions that are generated by the impulses in society. Some conscious, most of which are not – Freud. Consciousness being a social product, the large part of identity and personality is the result of socialization, social norms clashes with impulses. - Psychosexual Development - Superego: unconscious mechanism that stores the norms that we have internalized. Moral sight of impulses. Guilt. Superego makes civilization possible in the first place - Id: opposite of superego - Ego: conscious structure that is caught in between the id and superego and is the mediator of mostly unconscious demands based on the reality principle Learning Theories - Classical Conditioning: Pavlovian: The drooling dog and bell - Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: Skinner box: We learn according to the consequences of our own choices and these actions are either reinforced or punished positively or negatively. Four types: 1. Positive reinforcement: getting something pleasurable 2. Negative Reinforcement: getting something taken away that you enjoy 3. Positive Punishment: law 4. Negative Punishment: - Bandura’s Social Learning Theory: a lot of learning is consequences of behaviours 1. Vicarious Reinforcement: if you see someone getting something that they want as soon as they are violent, then you can vicarious learn that violence is a good way to get what you want. 2. External Reinforcement: the social improvement of others. 3. Internal Reinforcement: sense of pride and accomplishment. Used a lot and stimulated a lot of research in trying to validate
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