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Lecture 10

CRCJ 1000 Mar26th Lec10.docx

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Carleton University
Criminology and Criminal Justice
CRCJ 1000
Nicolas Carrier

CRCJ 1000 Lec10 th Mach 26 , 2013 Etiological Criminology: Control, Labeling I. Control Theories - Start with the assumption that we all have impulses - Reiss: seeing crime as a failure of personal and social controls - Inner Containments: Four dimensions: 3. Gold orientation; believing in legitimate needs in achieving your goals and 4. coping skills: how do you deal with frustrations Hirshi’s Social Bond Theory: Causes of Delinquency - People do not commit crime because they feel bonded to society - The criminal will be criminalized by a lack of belonging, disconnection between the individual and society will open up the door to crime. - Four control variables: 1. Attachment: internalization of social norms, being attached to others, caring for others, most important in relation to the social bond according to Hirshi 2. Commitment: involvement or investment; do not commit crime because they have a lot to lose, commitment to a professional life, school life, family and friends..etc 3. Involvement: 4. Belief: belief system of the individual, the value placed one freedom belief in authority Gottfredson and Hirschi’s General Theory of Crime - Self-Control: people conform less because they are socially bonded – they have acquired a strong self-control, criminals lack this self control. Result of Socialization processes and of parenting practices. So what is self-control here? It is a concern for the long term consequences of one’s act; projecting oneself in the future, concerned by the consequences of my actions. Criminal is living in the present and not thinking in the future. - Criminals as puppets of their own desires: someone who cannot control these urges - Problems with parental discipline: parents of criminals are not committed enough to produce law abiding individuals, inconsistent punishment - Limitations of this theory Tittle’s Control Balance Theory - Motivational aspect of criminalized behaviour - Control Ratio: balance of control that someone has on ones life/environment - Control Deficit: the environment or other people or institutions are likely to shape/influence what is possible for you or not - Control Surplus: because of your position you can have more influence on the environment than the environment has one you. Crimes of exploitation, plunder and decadence; price fixing..etc - He can account for crimes of poverty that are motivated by need, we can account for crimes of violence that are motivated by humiliation, can account for crime of wealth that are motivated by greed. Control Balance Theory - Braithwaite Control Balance Theory: whether or not the individual thinks that deviant action is likely to produce a lasting impact on the control ratio. - Control Balance Desirablity - Balanced: confirming - Imbalanced: trigger to provide motivation II. Symbolic Interactionism - Philosophical - Mead: put the emphasis on the social nature of the self - Mediation of meaning: you cannot understand the self, without understanding how meaning structures it. We are actively engaged with the world outside. Symbolic mediation, will have a huge impact of criminology – start to look at the impact on the self who are the criminals, result of punishment…etc - Self as social product: - ‘I’ and ‘Me’ dialectic: relation between the ‘I’ and the ‘Me’ forms itself. The ‘I’ refers to the spontaneous reaction towards our environment. ‘Me’ is the way in which we look at ourselves through the eyes of others, a part of the self that uses other peoples perspective to look at ourselves. Blumer’s Simplification of the Perspective - 3 key elements of symbolic interactionism: 1. We act on the basis of the meanings 2. Meaning established with interactions with others 3. Modified by engagement - What will result to the work of Blumer and Mead? Will be a greater attention devoted to how we give meaning, how we label different behaviours III. Labeling & Stigmatization - Labeling theory explained crime as a result of consensual activities, efforts made to
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