CRCJ 1000 Mar19 Lec 9.docx

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Carleton University
Criminology and Criminal Justice
CRCJ 1000
Nicolas Carrier

CRCJ 1000 March 19 , 2013 Lecture 9 Etiological Criminology: Anomie, Strain, Subcultures III. The Chicago School - Park and Burgess: problem that Durkheim had, preoccupied with what makes society possible in the first place in the context of high mobility - Some focused on “how you can tame the beast” - How can we inhabit the same symbolic universe? – The Chicago School, despite all our differences we can have the same sense of belonging. - They see society as an organism, as a set of institutions, practices - Devise a model to understand how society evolves: (their analysis of social change) 1. Competition (ecological order): interactions without communications, they talk about the normal or natural state in a given society; you are unaware of who you are competing against; when you apply to uni, when you try to find work…etc. 2. Conflict: when some people become conscious that there is unfairness in the work place – practices that need to be changed; a conscious sight of struggle, a political decision that affect our daily lives. What concerns the conditions of competition (ecological order) 3. Accommodation: Not everyone is happy but there is a solution 4. Assimilation: It will become part of the culture and our regular expectations - Ethnographic Work: study and portrayal of ethnic groups/culture; participant observation (will involve the criminologist possibly posing as that ethnic group) - Burgess’ model of Urban Evolution: the evolution of the city, concentric circles (zonal), - Zonal hypothesis - Social Disorganization: Zone in transition (a lot of ethnic diversity, residential mobility) that will facilitate crime - Patterned distribution of social problems: The more you are close to the centre of the city the more crime and vice versa = a result of social disorganization; not enough stability in the zone of transition to shape the personalities of individuals to socialize them correctly - Shaw and McKay: managed to show in more than 60 cities, that the zonal hypothesis is verified in terms of the patterns of distribution of crime. What they managed to demonstrate, most of the crimes are in Zone 2; the zone in transition; characterized by a lot of mobility, poverty, moving in and moving out. - Ecological theory of crime causation: works its way through personality - This theory was well received by liberal criminology because it was against racialization of criminals - This theory has also been criticized a lot; they relied on official criminal stats and this is not without limitations, the whole idea of social disorganizations was also criticized, due to Whyte and Millls’. Whyte through ethnographic studies showed; the very poor neighbors of Chicago are not socially disorganized, it’s just organized in a different matter than the suburbs. Sutherland’s Differential Association Theory - 9 principles; set of propositions to explain criminal behaviour to normalize it. - See slides - 7. Priority refers to the precautious natur
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