4 Analyzing qualitative data I.docx
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Department
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Course
CRCJ 3002
Professor
Suzanne Cooper
Semester
Fall

Description
Analyzing qualitative data I: thematic analysis and grounded theory Thematic analysis - It aims to ‘understand’rather than ‘know’data • Not interested in the frequency of occurrence (count) - Amethod for identifying, analyzing and reporting patterns within the data • Looking for ‘themes’that arise  What do people generally say about national security?? - What counts as a theme? • More than 1 person says it. Not a theme if only 1 person says it Thematic analysis- 6 phases (Braun and Clarke) (these are for the data analysis) 1. Familiarizing yourself with the data 2. Generating initial codes 3. Searching for themes 4. Reviewing themes 5. Defining and naming themes 6. Producing the report 1. Familiarizing yourself with the data - “immerse” yourself in the data - Repeated reading - Start taking notes or marking ideas for coding - Transcription • Anote on conventions • Verbatim word for word (even uhm uh, ok, haha)  Can put O: place (for Ottawa)  “I got cancer in it [prostate]… so I told C:sister” ([prostate] = clarification. What they are referring to) • Punctuation ensure punctuation is accurate 2. Generating initial codes - Production of initial codes from the data - Codes identify a feature of the data that is interesting - Note: coded data differ from units of analysis (themes) - Key points: • Code for as many themes as possible • Code extracts of data inclusively (for context) • Data can be assigned different codes • Negative cases - Code for national security will be in relation to safety, whether they do or don’t feel safe 3. Searching for themes - Sort different codes into potential themes - Collate all relevant coded data extracts within the themes you have identified - “thematic map” 4. Reviewing themes - Refinement of themes • Distinction between themes • Review data extracts for each theme and determine whether they form a pattern • Review each theme in relation to entire data set 5. Defining and naming themes - Identifying the ‘essence’of the theme • Not simply paraphrasing, but identifying what is of interest about them and why - Conduct and write a detailed analysis for each theme - Name the theme Example: risk conditions (sharing behavior) for HIV/Hep C among IDUs - Three Themes: • Structural Pressures: refers to pressures that inhibited the participants’ability to engage in safer sexual and injection practices (even if they had the intention of doing so) such as the accessibility of injection equipment and condoms as well as the impact of homelessness. • Social Pressures: refers to pressure from others to share and participants’compliance with the risk behaviour of IDUs’injection partners, be they intimate partners, acquaintances or peers. • Psychological Pressures: participants engaged in intravenous drug use to cope with psychological issues associated with previous trauma (e.g., sexual abuse) or depression/anxiety. In addition, psychological conditions associated with ‘drug desperation’or being ‘non-assertive’also resulted, specifically, in risky sharing behavior. Examples - Psychological pressures drug desperation “Sometimes I was just so out of it, I didn’t...” - Sometimes you rely on words people say for your themes 6. Producing the report - Tell the ‘story’ - Provide sufficient evidence of the themes - Use vivid, straightforward extracts - Write up is NOT just providing data, but an analytic narrative that puts forward an argument in relation to the research question Potential pitfalls - Failure to analyze the data - Using the interview questions as themes - Weak of unconvincing analysis - Mismatch between data and analytic claims Braun and Clarke’s 15 point checklist- criteria for a good thematic analysis - Transcription: 1. The data have been transcribed to an appropriate level of detail, and the transcripts have been checked against the tapes for ‘accuracy’ - Coding 2. Each data item has been given equal attention in the coding process. 3. Themes have not been generated from a few vivid examples (an anecdotal approach), but instead the coding process has been thorough, inclusive and comprehensive. 4. All relevant extracts for all each theme have been collated. 5. Themes have been checked against each other and back to the original data set. 6. Themes are internally coherent, consistent, and distinctive. - Analysis 7. Data have been analyzed (interpreted, made sense of), rather than just paraphrased or described. 8. Analysis and data match each other - the extracts illustrate the analytic claims. 9. Analysis tells a convincing and well-organized story about the data and topic. 10. Agood balance between analytic narrative and illustrative extracts is provided. - Overall 11. Enough time has been allocated to complete all phases of the analysis adequately without rushing a or giving it a once-over-lightly - Written report 12. The assumptions about, and specific approach to, thematic analysis are clearly explicated. 13. There is a good fit between what you claim you do, and what you show you have done – i.e., described method and reported analysis are consistent. 14. The language and concepts used in the report are consistent with the epistemological position of the analysis. 15. The researcher is positioned as active in the research process; themes do not just ‘emerge’. Grounded theory - Grounded theory is • Theory which is derived inductively from the data which were systematically gathered and analyzed throughout the research process (Strauss and Corbin 1998). • Data collection, analysis and theory stand in a reciprocal relationship with each other.  Aresearcher does not begin with a pre-conceived theory in mind, rather the resear
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