5 Analyzing qualitative data II.docx
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Department
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Course
CRCJ 3002
Professor
Suzanne Cooper
Semester
Fall

Description
Analyzing qualitative data II: discourse analysis The use of language - Burr (1995) • Language is a pre-condition for thought  The way people think (via concepts, frameworks) is affected by the language that they use • Language is a form of social action  World gets constructed when people converse with each other Social constructionist view of language - Person is constructed through language - Language itself provides us with a way of structuring our experience of ourselves and the world - Language is the fount of the meaning of experience What is a discourse? - Burr (1995) • Aset of meanings, metaphors, representations, images, stories, statements, and so on in that in some way together produce a particular version of events - Wood & Kroger (2000) • Adiscourse is all spoken and written forms of language use (talk and text) as social practice • Discourse and identity – identity is constructed out of the discourses culturally available to us • Discourses that form our identity have implications for what we can do and what we should do (e.g., constrain behavior, coping mechanisms) Discursive practices - Particular words, phrases, terms of reference, metaphors, systems of knowledge that construct a particular phenomenon as a certain kind of social object • e.g., 'homosexuality', 'Science‘, 'Muslims‘ - In each of those cases, the social object is being constructed by the discourse's choice of description, and the associations it implicitly makes Discourse analysis - Discourse analysis focuses on language as a social practice - How individuals use language in specific social contexts - Enables researcher to gain an understanding of how and why individuals use language to construct themselves - Enables researcher to understand the ideological effects of individuals’constructions. Distinction between text and discourse - Text  function of communication - Discourse  social purpose “Teachers facing fists, threats” (CBC, February, 2003) - The researchers asked 1,800 teachers to take part.About 600 responded: • 94 had been hit by a student • 59 had been kicked • 116 had been shoved • 26 had either been threatened or assaulted by a student with a weapon Variation and discourse analysis - Huge variation in types of discourse analysis • ‘The only thing that commentators are agreed on in this area is that terminological confusions abound’ (Potter & Wetherall, 1987, p. 6) - ‘Discourse analysis’à generic term for virtually all research concerned with language - Different levels of discourse (micro-, macro-level) Doing DiscourseAnalysis - Burr (1995): difficulty with methodology • Deconstruction  Revealing contradictions  The archaeology of knowledge  The analysis of discourses Interpretive Repertoires - Identification of Interpretive Repertoires • Tool-kit of resources for people to use - Generally, IRs are in the form of: • Enabling people to validate their version of events • To excuse or validate their own behavior • To fend off criticism or allow them to maintain a credible stance - Discourse can be confirmed by: • Referring to instances of its use in other texts. • Illustrating its dominance in any specific socio-cultural context Critical DiscourseAnalysis (Fairclough & Wodak, 2007) - CDAaddresses social problems - Power relations are discursive - Discourse constitutes society and culture - Discourse does ideological work - Discourse i
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