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Lecture Notes 17 Eruptive Styles and Landforms I.doc
Lecture Notes 17 Eruptive Styles and Landforms I.doc

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Carleton University
Earth Sciences
ERTH 2401
Claudia Schroder- Adams

Lecture 17 Eruptive Styles and Landforms I How do volcanoes eruptInternal heat Volcanoes are a mechanism by whichEarth expels internal heat quickly Internal heat increases with depthGeothermal gradient Anomalously hot zones Hot spotsSpreading centersFrom rock to magma What causes solid rock to melt Decrease Pmost important mechanism Decompression melting Increase T Increase water contentPhase change from solid to liquidaccompanied by volume expansion Fractures developing in overlyingrocksVolcanic eruption Sudden occurrence of a violentdischarge of volcanic materialsVolcanic eruptionStep by step1 Hot solid rock from asthenosphererises closer to the surface Pressure decrease causes rocks to melt partiallyDecompression melting2 Volume increase induces fractures More hot material rises More rocks liquefy3 Volatiles gradually come out of the melt Gas bubbles push magma upward4 Magma fragments When bubbles75 volume Powerful gas jet expels magma in the atmosphereEruptive style
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