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Lectures 5 & 6 Notes.docx

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Earth Sciences
ERTH 2415

ERTH 2415Lecture 6 and 7Plate Tectonics and Plate Tectonics and EarthquakesLecture 5Plate TectonicsObjectives 1To describe the Earths internal structure 2To be able to explain how plate tectonics operate 3To appreciate the evidence for plate tectonics 4To describe the different tectonic environmentsContents1Distribution of earthquakes and volcanoes 2The layered Earth 3The tectonic cycle 4Evidence for plate tectonics 5Our tectonic world 6Tectonic environments10Distribution of Earthquakes and VolcanoesEarthquakes and volcanoes do not occur at random locations20The Layered EarthDifferentiation Process by which gravity causes denser material to gradually migrate to the center of a planet Earth is differentiated into layers based on oDensity Outer layerCrust Silicon and oxygen Less DenseCrust this and rich in silicon and oxygenContinental cruststuff we walk on less denseOceanic crustocean floor more denseMantle Iron and magnesium DenseMantle Magnesium and iron rich Outer Core Liquid Iron Very DenseInner Core Solid Iron Very DenseCore Iron rich and metallicBuoyancyEarth can be described as a series of layers where less dense material float on top of sender material 1Continental crust has lower density than oceanic crust2Lowdensity crust floats on top of the denser mantle 3Mantle is supported by the very dense coreoPhysical Properties and StrengthGaseous atmosphereLiquid hydrosphereRigid lithospherewhat we walk on Solid Rigid solidPlastic asthenospherealso solid Like playdoughPlastic mesosphere More viscous than asthenosphereLiquid outer coreSolid inner coreLithosphereasthenosphere boundary ay depth of 100 kmTectonic plates are lithospheric plates Loops represent large convection cells in the asthenosphere and mesosphereConvection Heat Transfer by fluid circulationHeat comes from the core and goes in the circles in the mesosphere see diagram and in the asthenosphere Core stays hotthere are radioactive elements in the core that are decaying and producing heat Overtime however the earth is losing its heat
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