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Carleton University
Earth Sciences
ERTH 2415
Jason Mah

Lecture 13Geomagnetic HazardsFaradays law in laboratory magnetic field variations induce an electrical current in a mediumthe induced current creates its own magnetic fieldFaradays law in naturevariation in the earths magnetic field induce electrical telluric currentsGeomagnetic hazards extreme variations of the Earths magnetic field can have a significant effect on technological systemsEarths magnetic fieldgeomagnetic fieldEarths magnetic fieldinternal geomagnetic field earths coreexternal geomagnetic field ionosphere magnetosphereInternal geomagnetic fielddue to movement liquid iron in outer core earths rotation heat transfer by convection at the outerinner core boundary slow variations External geomagnetic field disturbances affecting technological systems are caused by variations of the external geomagnetic fieldshort durationdriven by solar activity The suns outermost atmosphere corona is hot and turbulent Solar wind stream of charged particles flowing away from the suns corona in all directionsStrong gusts of solar wind caused by coronal holesCoronal holes occur in a small localized area of the suns surfaceviolent explosions heat up material and shoot it in outer spaceStrong gusts of solar wind caused by coronal mass ejectionsCoronal mass ejections starscale events Charged particles and radiation are released from the suns corona in the vicinity of sunspotsMagnetic storm temporary a few hoursdays largescaled perturbation of the external geomagnetic field due to high solar activitymore frequent at peak of solar cycle or declining phase of solar cycleEarths magnetosphere region around the Earth shielded from the solar wind by the internal geomagnetic field Extends several 1000kms above earths surfaceSpace weather changing environmental conditions in spacemostly related to solar activity Consequences on technological systems1Bombardment by charged particles Problems affecting satellites Pressure from solar wind affect satellite orbit Charged particles can interfere with circuitry Charge buildup can lead to violent discharge12Ionospheric disturbances Problems affecting the GPSgps signal delayed between ground and satellite Error in distance determination Temporary loss of signal3Electromagnetic induction Extreme variations in the external geomagnetic field induce telluric currents along electrically conducting networks telegraph telephone power transmission lines pipelinesTelegraphfirst technological systems involving long conductors on the Earths surface Power transmission linesadditional telluric currents flowing along power transmission lines Overheating of transformers spurious signals in network control systems Pipeline lifetime2040 years Cathodic protection system against corrosion MitigationOttawa geomagnetic laboratory is currently developing space weather forecasts specifically designed for utility companies Lecture 14Plate tectonics and volcanoesMineral naturally occurring inorganic solid with ex quartzRocksolid aggregate of one or more mineralsRock cycle describes processes by which older rocks are made into new rocks3 types of rock igneous sedimentary metamorphicIgneous RocksForm by cooling and solidification of molten liquid called magmaCrystallization process of mineral formation in a cooling magmaCooling at depth intrusive igneous rocks slow cooling large crystalsCooling at the surface extrusive rocks volcanicfast cooling small crystals contact with atmMagma partially molten rocks below earths surfaceLava magma that reaches the surface3 components of magma2
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