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Lecture Notes 18 Eruptive Styles and Landforms II .doc

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Earth Sciences
ERTH 2415
Claire Samson

Lecture 18 Eruptive Styles and landforms II Calderatype eruptions Tectonic environmentsMostly subduction zones Hot spot Magma composition andesitic torhyolitic High viscosity High volatile contentVery large volume Largest explosive volcanic eruptions Two different phenomena1 Volcano collapseor 2Cataclysmic explosionCalderatype eruptions1 Volcano collapse Collapse of existing stratovolcano intopartially emptied magma chamber Follows a Pliniantype eruption thatopened void space below the volcano Pistonlike action of collapsingvolcano cause very large volume ofmagma to flow outward as pumicerichsheets2 Cataclysmic explosion Explosion blows the existing volcanoapart completely Examples Krakatoa SantoriniKrakatoa Indonesia Subduction of Australian plate underEurasian plate along west coast ofIndonesiaKrakatoa Indonesia Reawakening 20 May 1883 Had been quiet for200 years 2627 August 1883 series of explosions Final cataclysmic explosion completelydestroyed volcano Walls of volcano ruptured Ocean water invaded magmachamberExplosion due super hot steamSize of explosion 100 megatons20 kilotons at Hiroshima Explosion heard on 13 of Earths surface
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