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Lecture Notes 15 Tectonic volcanoes .doc

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Carleton University
Earth Sciences
ERTH 2415
Claire Samson

Lecture 15Guest Tectonics and Volcanoes Volcanic eruption Geological disastersThe Rock CycleInner Core solid ironvery denseOuter Core Liquid iron very denseIron and Magnesium DenseMantle Crust silicon and oxygen low densityCrust Thin lowdensity crust rich in silicon and oxygen Composition of the crust As a result of planetary differentiation8 elements form 98 of the crust Silicon and oxygen account for75 Flements combine to form minerals4000 minerals known 25 common Minerals are the building blocks of rocksWhat is the composition of the crust45 Oxygen27 Silicon Minerals and rocksMinerals naturally occurring inorganic solid withbuilding blocks or rockOrderly internal structure atoms are bound togetherIndividual physical characteristicscolour crystal form Rock solid aggregate of one or more minerals limestone can be made up of one mineralothers are made up of more minerals Ex metamorphic Geochemistry Biochemistry studies structures of carbon geochemistry studies structures of silicon and oxygen Basic building block is the siliconoxygen tetrahedron moleculeSiO tetrahedron moleculeFour oxygen ions surrounding a much smaller silicon ion Negative charge share one or more of the oxygens Tetrahedrons combine to form rings chains sheets and 3D structuresEx Single chain share individual oxygens double chain sheetSilicatesSilicates group of minerals containing silicon and oxygen combined with one or more other elements Most abundant mineral group in the Earths crust Silicon and oxygen account for75 of the Earths crust What is the rock cycledescribes processes by which older rocks are made into new rocks Theoretical concept predating plate tectonics Igneous rocksform by cooling and solidification from a molten liquid called magma
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