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ECON 1000
Tamy Superle

Normal distribution about the mean  Mode (most frequent) = median (mid) = mean (average value)  Bell-shaped/ even distributions of values above and below mean  Standard error (SE) o True mean of SE is ±1.96 o In a number of samples each sample will have its own mean o Standard error measures how much the value of a sample mean is likely to vary o The greater the standard error, the greater the variation of the mean  Standard deviation (σ) o Measure of the spread of results about the mean of a normal distribution curve o Thinner bell-shape / smaller standard deviation / less variation o Same pattern with bigger bell-shape Causes of variation Independent assortment of bivalents at the equator during anaphase I  Chromosomes of bivalents pulled to opposite poles at random  2n different combinations of chromosomes in four haploid cells produced where n is the haploid number of chromosomes Crossing over between non-sister chromatids during prophase I  At synapsis, non-sister chromatids of homologous pairs cross over at chiasmata  Homologous chromatids (corresponding pieces of genetic material) break and exchange equivalent segments between maternal and paternal chromatids  Results in new combination of genes from the two parents Fertilization / random fusion of gametes  Genetic difference amo
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