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Lecture 5

ECOR 1010 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Malaria, Industrial Revolution, Biomimetics

Engineering Common Core Courses
Course Code
ECOR 1010
Glenn Mc Rae

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Technology, Society and the Environment
Lecture 1= the Drivers of Change (Population, Economy, Social Values, Technology, Environment)
2005 – 6.4 billion people on the planet
By 2050 --- 8.9 to 10.3 billion on the planet
Population increasing at a rate of ~ 73M/year
During your life-time the global population has increased by 28%
>95% of growth in developing countries
In Canada 85% live in cities
By 2050 65% will live in cities
China planning to reverse 80% rural 20% urban with a generation of over 200 >1M cities to be built
Gross Domestic Product = the total market value of all the goods and services produced within the
borders of a nation during a specified period.
Gross World Product = Measurement of the total income and output of all the countries added up.
During your lifetime almost 70% increase in GDP
International Trade expanding rapidly, 20% increase in GWP
2004 -- $54.7 trillion, $8.6 per capita…………. 2050 -- >$200 trillion
Poor countries had there best times in the 60s and 70s at 3.3 % growth.
2004 production of 44M cars vs. 8M in 1950
Car Density in China equal to US in 1910-1920’s
Bad Things about Cars
Oven the cities, plus heated pavement for cars
Acid Rain, Smog, Benzene, Sulphur, Road Salt
Grain harvest exceeds 2 billion tons
World meat production > 250M tons, > 40kg/per person
By 2020 consumption will be 90kg/capita in industrialized nations
Over 70% wild fish stocks in decline or depleted.
Halve the number living in extreme poverty and hunger
Universal Primary Education
Reduce child mortality by two thirds
Combat disease by doubling access to safe drinking water and sanitation

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Social Capital = the collective value of all social networks and the inclinations that arise from these
networks to do things for each other
Cohesion – Working together
Including everyone
Responsible and Informed
Transparency = full, accurate, and timely disclosure of information
Corporate social responsibility = company’s obligation to be sensitive to the needs of everyone
Biomimicry = imitation of a natural phenomenon's or environment's efficiency and survival
mechanisms in manufacturing processes
Efficiency, Conservation, and Conversion
READING 1 = Economic clout (influence) grows
"Group of 21" - a collection of countries from the developing world led by Brazil that includes South
Africa, India and China
Brazil, South Africa and India - got together to fight pharmaceutical companies' high prices for life-
saving medicines
After protests by those three countries, the World Trade Organization granted poor nations the right to
make and import cheap copycat medicines for "national emergencies."
Trade between poorer countries now makes up only 10 percent of world trade but it is growing rapidly
40 percent of exports from developing countries go to their peers, and trade between these countries is
rising 11 percent a year
BRICs - Brazil, Russia, India and China
The BRICs countries' combined GDP adds up to about one-sixth of that of the G6 economies, by 2025 it
should be 1/2
G6 countries - the United States, Japan, Germany, France, Italy and Britain
2050 biggest economies will be (in order) China, USA, India, Japan, Brazil, Russia
The Zabbaleen innovation, for example, arose in large part because of a waste management
emergency in Cairo,
Four ingredients for successful implementation
Sustainable innovations depend on direct community participation. (commitment)
Most innovations are driven by a charismatic leader who is tenaciously dedicated to implementing
the new idea.
The most powerful innovations are those which span several policy areas and
types of innovations
Gender awareness was needed at all levels. (important role of women)
Obstacles inadequate funds, land, people, supplies….internal community conflict…. Government
resistance…… Tech problems
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