Lecture10-Chapter6Ceratopsia .doc

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Chapter 6 - Lecture 10
Marginocephalia (edge-head)--> reflects an important connection between two major
different looking, groups of dinosaurs: Pachycephalosauria and Ceratopsia
Ceratopsia--> defined by the presence of a rostral bone forming the upper beak
a.Psittacosauridae
b.Basal neoceratopsian (protoceratopsids)
c. Ceratopsidae
What does Psittacosaurus mean?
parrot reptile, Parrot-like beak with rostral bone (only ceratopsians have this
beak)
When was Psittacosauru Discovered?
in the Gobi in 1920’s
How many fossil specimens?
120 fossil specimens
Did Psittacosaurus have frills?
have not developed frill structures in the back
Were they Bipedal?
yes.
Based on a fossil find proceratops was in a combat position with a small cerapoda is
losing why is this interesting ?
cerapoda was stealing eggs underneath (nest)
What is an egg stealing dinosaur called?
oviraptor philoceraptaps
Why are nesting sites such as the one in Mongolia interesting?
you can reconstruct what a ceratopsian hatchling would look like.
What do triceratops have in the front and back?
three nice horns in the front and frills in the back
Ceratopsia is a well studied group where are they mostly found?
North America, Great herds in Alberta, Montana and Wyoming
Who discovered Ceratopsians?
Cope and Marsh
What did Cope and Marsh discover?
Parts of pelvis, some vertebrae and teeth
Horn cores misidentified as belonging to bison horns
1880 skull of Triceratops (three,horn, face) in Wyoming
How many complete and partial skulls of triceratops have been found?
50
Ceratopsian discovery in China
In 1923 where were ceratopsian dinosaurs discovered ?
Gobi Desert Ex.Proceratops
Andrews was in american researcher travelled into the Gobi dessert what did he
find?
Egg fossils
what was the Oviraptor doing?
protecting its eggs
Ceratopsia: Far migration
What did Sternberg discovered in Alberta?
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Pachyrhinosaurus
Where did Pachyrhinosaurus roamed
Alberta and Montana
Further research has found that Pachyrhinosaurus migrated to ?
north slope of Alaska
What does it suggest when Pachyrhinosaurus is found in Alaska?
Warmer climate in the Cretaceous
What do dinosaurs have to cope with when they are traveling in high
latitude(North)?
dark winter (seasonal migration could have taken place)
70 Mill years ago up to 5 degrees of the late Cretaceous North Pole what does it
suggest?
traveled very far North
Characteristic features of Ceratopsia
what was the Rostral bone?
unique bone at tip of snout leading to a parrot-like beak
what is the Skull like?
narrow at the beak and flaring out in a frill structure
Deep in the cheek region
What were the Frills composed principally of:
paired parietal bones (on top of skull)
Strongly vaulted palate beneath the beak
What is it separating?
nasal from oral cavity
What do frills also do?
muscle attachment
Evolution of Ceratopsia
How did Ceratopsian evolve ?
Went from small (1-2 m) bipeds to large (5-10 m) massive quadrupeds
The Origin of Psittacosaurus a small biped is ?
Late Jurassic of Asia
We develop eventually a large quadrupeds called? and in which period?
Basal Neoceratopsian common in Asia through Early Cretaceous
Ceratopsian first appear and are only found in what period ?
Late Cretaceous in North America
How did the Ceratopsians migrate from Asia to North America?
Baring Strait when it was a land mass
In the evolution of ceratopsia the Psittacosaurus was?
Bipedal
In the Psittacosaurus evolution Neoceratopsian's were ?
quadrupeds
Secondary evolutionary to step back to quadrupedality
Why did the Microceratops have difficulties?
carried a large head and was bipedal small forearms
What are the Neoceratopsian characters ?
Shape and number of horns
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