ERTH 2403 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Intertropical Convergence Zone, Langmuir Circulation, Upwelling

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Langmuir circulation: steady wind, generates small waves. Induce rows of rotating and counter-rotating cells: divergence upwelling, convergence downwelling, el ni o-southern oscillation (enso, el ni o atmospheric and oceanic disturbances in the pacific ocean that cause warm surface current in equatorial eastern. Christmas time: southern oscillation change in atmospheric pressure over pacific ocean accompanying el ni o, enso describes combined oceanic-atmospheric disturbances, el nino + southern oscillation, normal conditions. Australia (west pacific low pressure, warm, wet air) Itcz shifts south of equator in fall: coastal downwelling = no fishing, peru (east) warm, wet, landslides. Australia (west) dry, cold = crop failures. Lower biological productivity: el ni o warm phase every 2 to 10 years, phases last between 12 to 18 months, b. thermohaline circulation, video el nino. At west of south america the warm water is replaced with cold water through upwelling: warm water causes heat to rise, creating an area of unsettled weather (more cloud and rain flow).

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