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Lecture 5

GEOG 1020 Lecture 5: Globalization

10 Pages

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GEOG 1020
Paul Williams

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GEOG 1020 October 16 , 2017 Globalization Contd. Core-Periphery Clear winners and losers in the global economy o Some thrived while others stagnated or even stalled in their development Meir and Baldwin first attempted to describe the world in the framework of the core- periphery in 1957: o Core Country = if played a dominant and active role in world trade, with a market economy and an outward movement of financial capital from it to other countries o Peripheral Country = if played a secondary or passive role in world trade, with either a market-type economy or subsistence-type economy; externally dependent on the centre as the source of large proportion of imports, as destination of large proportion of its exports, and as a lender of capital Disparities/inequalities that created this world became focus of much research in the 60s o Less developed countries could not even advance because their under development was a structural requirement for the continued development and prosperity of the Core countries o Un equal trade, exploitation of labour and profit extraction Cuba & N. Korea only two seen as excluded from this world system! World System Theory Immanuel Wallerstein (1984) a. Core b. Periphery c. Semi-periphery He saw a world organized into three categories the core, the periphery and a third category, the semi-periphery. This created a hierarchy of states. He argued that the entire world economy was to be seen as an evolving market system in which this hierarchy of states was the product of long-wave economic rhythms. In theory, a country could move from one category to another over time. The model further attempts to explain the international stratification among regions/countries a model that focuses not just on one country or one time period, but as an interedependent system that has been structured by social, economic and political factors over time (since European colonialism). th Since the 17 c., this world-system has become more extensive and more consolidated through globalization a. General framework b. Interdependence of regions and places c. Dynamic and uneven Core Regions Dominate trade, control most advanced technologies, have high levels of productivity within diversified economies High per capita incomes Many are former colonial powers e.g. Dutch, UK Semi-Peripheral Able to exploit peripheral regions, but are exploited/dominated by core regions Mostly countries that were once peripheral e.g. Brazil, India, Mexico Including newly industrializing countries, emerging markets, BRICS With the relocation of manufacturing activities, semi-peripheral regions of world changing quickly FINISH AFTER POPULATION Population milestones: 11 July 1987 5 billion 12 October 1999 6 billion 31 October 2011 7 billion Canadas population: Currently 36,719,482 (oct 15 ) 45 million by 2050 Current overall annual growth rate of 1.1% About two thirds of increase attributable to immigration About one third natural increase Population growth problems: Overuse, exploitation, exhaustion of resources Environment garbage, fossil fuels, carbon footprint Urban overcrowding Food security Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) Thomas Malthus argued that overpopulation directly corresponds to human suffering due to the notion that human population increases geometrically while food production can only increase arithmetically. These trends, he argued, would result in a point at which a society experiences war, poverty, and famine as the need for food surpasses its availability. The Population Bomb 1968 Paul Ehrlich said that in the 1970s hundreds of millions of people will starve to dea
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