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Lecture 5

GEOG 1020 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: The Population Bomb, Core Countries, Arithmetic Progression

10 pages106 viewsFall 2017

Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 1020
Professor
Paul Williams
Lecture
5

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GEOG 1020 – October 16th, 2017
Globalization – Cont’d.
Core-Periphery
Clear winners and losers in the global economy
oSome thrived while others stagnated or even stalled in their development
Meir and Baldwin first attempted to describe the world in the framework of the core-
periphery in 1957:
oCore Country = if played a dominant and active role in world trade, with a market
economy and an outward movement of financial capital from it to other countries
oPeripheral Country = if played a secondary or passive role in world trade, with
either a market-type economy or subsistence-type economy; externally dependent
on the centre as the source of large proportion of imports, as destination of large
proportion of its exports, and as a lender of capital
Disparities/inequalities that created this world became focus of much research in the 60s
oLess developed countries could not even advance because their under
development was a structural requirement for the continued development and
prosperity of the Core countries
oUn equal trade, exploitation of labour and profit extraction
Cuba & N. Korea only two seen as excluded from this world system!
World System Theory – Immanuel Wallerstein (1984)
a. Core
b. Periphery
c. Semi-periphery
He saw a world organized into three categories – the core, the periphery and a third
category, the semi-periphery. This created a hierarchy of states.
He argued that the entire world economy was to be seen as an evolving market system in
which this hierarchy of states was the product of long-wave economic rhythms. In theory,
a country could move from one category to another over time.
The model further attempts to explain the international stratification among
regions/countries – a model that focuses not just on one country or one time period, but
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as an interedependent system that has been structured by social, economic and political
factors over time (since European colonialism).
Since the 17th c., this world-system has become more extensive and more consolidated
through globalization
a. General framework
b. Interdependence of regions and places
c. Dynamic and uneven
Core Regions
Dominate trade, control most advanced technologies, have high levels of productivity
within diversified economies
High per capita incomes
Many are former colonial powers e.g. Dutch, UK
Semi-Peripheral
Able to exploit peripheral regions, but are exploited/dominated by core regions
Mostly countries that were once peripheral e.g. Brazil, India, Mexico
Including newly industrializing countries, “emerging markets”, BRICS
With the relocation of manufacturing activities, semi-peripheral regions of world
changing quickly
FINISH AFTER
POPULATION
Population milestones:
11 July 1987 – 5 billion
12 October 1999 – 6 billion
31 October 2011 – 7 billion
Canada’s population:
Currently 36,719,482 (oct 15th) – 45 million by 2050
Current overall annual growth rate of 1.1%
About two thirds of increase attributable to immigration
About one third natural increase
Population growth problems:
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Overuse, exploitation, exhaustion of resources
Environment – garbage, fossil fuels, carbon footprint
Urban overcrowding
Food security
Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834)
“Thomas Malthus argued that overpopulation directly
corresponds to human suffering due to the notion that
human population increases geometrically while food
production can only increase arithmetically. These
trends, he argued, would result in a point at which a
society experiences war, poverty, and famine as the need
for food surpasses its availability.”
The Population Bomb 1968
Paul Ehrlich said that in the 1970s hundreds of millions of people will starve to death
Demography
Key concerns:
oHow many people, where, why
oPopulation structure
oDifferences between regions
oConsequences of population patterns
oChange over time
Why are there more people in some areas than others?
What are the implications of these differences on the economy or on the environment?
How are these patterns changing over time?
As a species we are not spread evenly across the planet
Population = group of individuals of the same species who inhabit an area
Defined by five factors:
1. Birth rate
2. Death rate
3. Sex ration
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