Class Notes (806,856)
Canada (492,490)
Geography (112)
GEOG 2200 (36)
Lecture 2

Week 6 Lecture 2 GEOG 2200 2013 Notes.docx

12 Pages
Unlock Document

Carleton University
GEOG 2200
John Milton

Page1Week 6 Lecture 2The State under PressureGEOG 2200 2012The State is presently under pressure from two sides There are the pressures of economic integration associated with the processes of globalization Then there are the pressures exerted by separatist movements from withinFurther complicating this is the emergence of transnational structures of various degrees of economic social and political integration of member statesThe world has undergone dramatic changes since the Second World War This includes the range of economic transformations we have been highlighting in this courseBut it has also led to significant cultural AND political transformationsAs part of these transformations we have witnessed both the formation of transnational organizations at the macroscale and the fragmentation of political powers within statesand even the demise of statesIt is perhaps a paradox that the forces of globalization are also fostering forces of glocalizationthe reemergence of the local local identities and expressionsTaken together we see the State as under pressure from both processes of integration and disintegrationThe Pressures of integrationThe emergence of supranational and international organizations can be traced back to the end of the Second World War This period marked the foundation of the world economy as we know itIt was a system without the economic barriers of the trading colonial empiresThe emergence of this system required two conditionsThe establishment of an orderly worldinternally peaceful and secure andLeadershipsomething provided by the United States as the Soviet Union and its world empire turned inward in an attempt to restructure its society and economy along ideological linesUnder these two conditions a new world economic structure emerged This structure was facilitated by stable international currency exchange rates under Bretton Woods Agreement of 1944 and the fostering of trade by reducing existing barriersIt was also fostered by Fordism as the foundational form of economic organization And this was exported from North America to Europe and Japan either directly through occupation or indirectly through reconstruction efforts the Marshall Plan and FDI by US companiesFinally it was promoted by the emergence of MNCs with their capacity to move capital and technology relatively rapidly from place to place As Knox Agnew and McCarthy write although private companies are by no means absolute masters of their own fate they do have the ability as compared with governmental units to redefine their commitments and objectives in response to the changing opportunities presented by the globalization of the world economyThen came along PostFordism and the fragmentation of the global logic and a decentralized restructured and consolidated world economy emerged by the late 1980sThe NICs and Tigers specifically had brought a new dimension to the world economy and a new hierarchical geopolitical systemNew communications technologies new forms of corporate organization and new business services were intensifying timespace compressiondecreasing the time Page2horizons for both public and private decision making and making it easier to spread those decisions over a wider spaceThis was reinforced by flexible production systems and flexible corporate structuresIt is within this new context of political and economic interdependence that regional and international shifts in economic and political power began to occurDespite history the longterm trend among the worlds national economies has been towards the progressive integration and interdependence of local regional and national economies As globalists would argue the logic of the world economy has in many ways transcended the scale of nationstatesThe outcomes of postFordism or NeoFordism have forced many states to explore cooperative strategies of various kinds creating a new global landscape of various forms of international and supranational economic and political integrationWhy look to integration Part of the issue is the nature of the state itself how it has created its national identity and how it sees its role and obligations national security and economic development The international trade system provided the major impetus for countries to be drawn into various forms of institutionalized integrationThere are three basic advantages of formalized integration There is the potential for economies of scale particularly for the smallest countries and weakest national economies There is the potential for creating multiplier effects from the existence of enlarged markets There is the potential for strengthening regional integration by easing the movement of labour goods and capitalHowever there are also disadvantages There is the potential loss of national sovereignty over a broad spectrum of issues There is the potential for intensification of internal inequalities as a wider geographical context makes for more pronounced processes of uneven developmentTypes and levels of integrationIntegration has been pursued in a variety of ways and formsIt can be formalinvolving an institutionalized set of rules and procedures eg the UN the EU GATT ORIt can be informalinvolving a coalition of interests UN voting blocs ORIt can internationalattempts to foster integration between countries NATO AU WTO ORIt can be supranationala commitment to an institutionalized body with certain powers over member states EUIt can be economicallyoriented WTO NAFTA strategic NATO political UN voting blocs sociocultural UNESCO or mixed AUDifferent forms of organizational integration exist reflecting differing degrees of integrationFree trade associations In a free trade association member states eliminate barriers to trade tariffs and quotas from other member states while continuing to maintaining such barriers to nonmember statesThis does not include political associationExamples include NAFTA and the Southern African Development Community SADCNAFTA is unprecedented insofar as it constitutes the integration of core and semiperiphery countriesMany labourintensive activities have shifted to Mexico while the Mexican market has opened up to products and services from the US and Canada
More Less

Related notes for GEOG 2200

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.