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Lecture 2

Week 5 Lecture 2 GEOG 2200 2013 Notes.docx

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GEOG 2200
John Milton

Page1GEOG 2200 Global ConnectionsJohn Milton Instructor SeptemberDecember 2013Week 5Lecture 2 The Impact of Global FoodConcerns of Us and ThemPeople living in the periphery and semiperiphery face three basic issues related to food Food security and this often translates into issues associated with land reform Gender issues particularly womens rights and Fairer trade Meanwhile for people living in the core the principle concerns relating to food are impacts of industrialcommercial agriculture notably environmental impacts biotechnology health issues and food pricesIssues in the periphery and semiperipheryStructural changes in food production have dramatic impacts on the lives of millions of people in the periphery and semiperiphery Amartya Sen in his seminal work on the Bengali famine of the 1940s Poverty and Famines An Essay on Entitlements and Deprivation concluded that this famine was not the result of a shortage of foodit was the result of people not having access to that food They could not afford to buy the food And this resulted in millions dying Vanda Shiva in her work The Violence of the Green Revolution examined the adverse social and economic impacts of the Green Revolution in the plains of the Ganges River She revealed how the processes associated with that revolution left millions of people landless and homeless through farm consolidationFood security has becoming increasingly important yet it is not without some ironymany nations such as India have declared themselves as selfsufficient in food production This is the problem with big statistics How can a country such as India declare itself food selfsufficient when hundreds of millions lack adequate food According to a study published this year in parts of India 42 percent of all children under age 5 suffer from malnurtition a sobering reminder of the persistence of poverty and hunger in the worlds largest democracy In addition to the human cost there is a huge economic cost to hunger and malnutritionin terms of loss of cognitive ability schooling and labour productivity Estimates albeit rough ones suggest that malnutrition may be costing the Indian economy the equivalent of 45 of its GDP The components of food security arethe availability of food or the amount of food that actually exists local production and other sourcespeoples physical economic and social access to food the capacity to producebuyacquire food and the stability of this access over timethe quality or nutritional adequacy of that food and peoples ability to utilise this food including the patterns of control over who eats what and the physical ability to absorb nutrients affected by health status factors such as intestinal parasitesThese are determined by physical economic political and other conditions within communities and are undermined by shocks such as natural disasters and conflict
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