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Week 11 Lecture 1. GEOG 2200 2012 Notes.docx

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Carleton University
GEOG 2200
John Milton

Page1Week 11 Lecture 1 The History of Development ThoughtGEOG 2200 GlobalizationWhat is developmentAccording to the Oxford dictionary development consists of a gradual unfolding evolution a wellgrown stage stage of advancement a more elaborate form Taken in the context of economic policy it conveys the sense of positive change over time And this positive change is generally understood as improvements the wellbeing of people Therefore development consists of growth or progress towards greater prosperity This development imperative has become a focal point of international efforts to global poverty However exactly how this goal is to be achieved has changed dramatically since the Second World War as has the context in which international development is conceived Did development predate the Second World War Not really At least not as we understand it today It was perhaps lurking behind ideas of civilizing othersan idea shared by the Chinese and their conceptualizing of everyone beyond their empire as barbarians and by European imperial AND theological narrativesThe current understanding of the international dimension of development emerged following the Second World War and the articulation of different worlds Initially the world was seen as being divided into two worldsthe Developed World and the Developing Worldin the NorthSouth model reflecting historical conditions perpetuated by the coreperiphery dichotomy People however came to divide the globe into three worldsThe First Worldconsisting of Western democracies and industrially advanced nationsThe Third Worldconsisting of underdeveloped nations andThe Second Worldconsisting of communist statesThe Development Project or program was first expressed in 1949 by US President Truman and has since been termed the Truman Doctrine in his inaugural address In it he said We must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areasFor the first time in history humanity possesses the knowledge and the skill to relieve the suffering of these peopleI believe that we should make available to peaceloving peoples the benefits of our store of technical knowledge in order to help them realize their aspirations for a better lifeWhat we envisage is a program of development based on the concepts of democratic fairdealingGreater production is the key to prosperity and peaceIt wasnt however that innocent Yet again it is necessary to see the Truman Doctrine in its historic context What were the realities of that time that set the historical context of the Truman Doctrine The Second World War might have been over but the Cold War was just heating up And one of the primary battlefields for the dueling ideologies of Western democracy and communism was the Third World and the newly liberated colonies of European empires In this light postwar development was driven not simply by some deepseated concern for the rest of humanity but by geopolitics This was very clearly illustrated by the Tigers of Southeast Asia and well come to them soon The program of development was subsequently seen as not simply an inherent good overcoming the ancient enemies of hunger misery and despair but also was seen as providing a necessary bulwark against communismPage2Some time later scholars and practitioners came to criticize this categorization of the globe They saw the terms Third World and Developing World as being a negative labeling of these countries portraying them as backward and in need of assistance from the outside from the industrial North or Developed World an idea perpetuated from the days of Empire Morage Bell 1994 wrote that these titles mask a more complex realityWhat is the geography of the Third World Certain common features come to mind poverty famine environmental disaster and degradation political instabilities regional inequalities and so on A powerful and negative image is created that has coherence resolution and definition But behind this tragic stereotype there is an alternative geography one which demonstrates that the introduction of development into the countries of the Third World has been a protracted painstaking and fiercely contested processIn reality the presentation of the Third World as a monolithic bloc is highly simplistic and misleading The reality is a complex and diverse geography shaped by a range of locally specific factors such as social attitudes culture history environmental conditions labour skills and farming practicesStages of Development TheoryBoth our understanding of what constitutes development and our approaches to development have changed significantly through the decades since the end of the Second World War Following Trumans inaugural speech a development industry emerged during the 1950s and 1960s This consisted of a shared belief amongst practitioners and funding nations and institutions in economic planning modern technology and outside investment as the key drivers of change This was seen as the ideology of modernization The UN declared the 1960s as the decade of development Herein economic aspects of development were heavily stressed during the 1960s and 1970s Policies focused on fostering investment and growth which would translate into increased incomes and employment opportunities Development indicators were created to measure progress with gross domestic product GDP and gross national product GNP being the most commonly used of these indicatorsSince then there has been in general a broadening of what constitutes development and therefore was constitutes development policies Since the 1970s these have included more qualitative aspects of change encompassing broader social and political goals alongside of economic ones The most important articulation of this broader form of development is that of Amartya Sen and his notion of capabilities development and development as freedom Under this broader understanding of development other indicators have been created including most notably the Human Development Index used by the UN and based upon Sens workThe Modernization SchoolThe modernization school was dominant during the 1950s and 1960s It was based on theexperience of the global North and particularly the economic history of the United States This school consists of several important approaches to development These wereThe Big Push of Paul RosensteinRodanThe balanced growth theory of Ragnar NurkseThe unbalanced growth theory of Albert HirschmanArthur Lewiss dual economy modelWalt Whitman Rostows stages of growth analysis
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