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HIST 1001-B Nov 1,2012.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

Council of Jerusalem (circa 50AD) Council of Nicaea (325 AD) Arianism Trinity St. Augustine of Hippo (354 -430AD) Temporal and Spiritual Grace Predestination Celibacy Dloceses Bishop Cathedral Parish Archbishop/Archdiocese Apostolic Sucession St. Peter (Greek “Petros” Rock Petrine Doctrine) Papacy Great Schism (1054 AD) Monasticism (Greek “Monos” Alone) St. Benedict of Nursia (Italy) (480-547 AD) Abbot/Abbess St. Boniface (675-754 AD) -Medival times -> Those who fight and those who pray – then there’s the 90% of people (everyone else) -Challenges that the church had to deal with -Early church could not ignore people • St. Augustine creates the intellectual centre of life • Church is the only place to find books and is the centre of intellectual life after fall of Rome • Augustine’s voyage to Christianity, was a Roman, tries on different theological traditions • Needed to figure out how to reconcile their faith and religious tradition with intellectual tradition of Greeks and Romans • Focused on the human and the temporal rather than the spiritual • Augustine argued that we are all born in original sin • Act of sexual procreation by which all of us come into the world passes the sin from one generation to the next • Born into original sin, only god can wipe clean our sins • Does this through grace, forgiveness of god • Why send only son to earth to be killed? “Christs’ death atones for all of our sins • Jesus tries to live a life free of sin • Out of human hands and up to God to decide, he existed in life and future at all time • God decided who would be going to hell • Even from the creation of the world, it was already decided what our faith was going to be -> predetermination • It would create conflict from then on in the church • High church officials were to be celibate -> hostile attitude towards heterosexual life • Marriage was a necessary evil. Sexual acts have taints of evil • Augustine wrote about church doctorith • Was not until late middle ages in 13 century that the catholic church was forced to reconcile Augustine’s learnings • Aristsotle doesn’t come in until 1200s where church had to recalibrate their learnings • By 500s AD Fundamental pillars of Christiansity • Catholics worshiped trinity -> God the father, son and holy spirit • All humans were born of original sin and could be saved by only God • In your interest to act as though you are saved • Church’s hostility towards sexuality • Church’s effort to establish orthodox teachings went hand and hand into its efforts to organize itself as the successor to the Roman empire • Church could not be filled with dissenting believers • Church could not be under divided leadership • Rigid church hierarchy and rigid control of church teachings • Requires if church is going to have monopoly on both religious and political powers • German invaders filled vacuum left by retreating Roman people o Church filled vacuum left by retreating roman people • The Western Empire was on the periphery of Rome • Christian communities made strong governments and administrative order • Catholic church gloms onto of the Roman diocese (in order to organize over the areas) • Cathedrals -> Place where Bishop sits • Church -> Bishop does not sit • By middle ages, bishops and archbishops were secular and clerical rulers • Almost always drawn from aristocratic families “second sons” First succeeds father’s political role • Presided over vast estates of their own and had armed men at their disposal • High nobles of their own rank • Bishop’s diocese was divided into perishes • Parish priest was the lowest person on the totem pole • Typically came from the lower serf population • In local lord’s perish church • Ability to appoint a parish priest by the local lord • Church was instructed that the priest would be freed from his serfdom • Lords held onto the perish priest as their own lands • Tug of war between local secular lord and the catholic church executives • Perish priest were only representative of the church in which the local people would have contact • Many Bishops didn’t even appear in their cathedrals or talked to the people -> took resources • Many local priests were good men whose spirituality were good • Courage from local parish priest sometimes let them protect the weak from the strong • Served secular interest of the local lord, was often ignorant of latin or church doctrine • Sometimes would dress in filthy robes, be seen in company of local prostitute, have several children, many parish priests were married with family wives and children • Arch diocese and arch bishop had local aut
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