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HIST 1001-B Nov 29,2012.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

Charles V(r. 1519-1556) John Calvin • Tensions within Roman Catholicism -> Within church, the men and tension between church and secular rulers (kings, queens, rulers) -> conflict with church’s rules • Everyone was Catholic in every country, one institution that unites everyone • Germanic tribes who distinguish themselves • Does the ruler or pope get to choose the bishops? Ruler in HRE or the Pope • Internal pressures for reform external and internal for the church continue to rise and fall th nd • 12 century -> henry the 2 clashed with Thomas Beckett, over crown’s authority over the English Church -> right to try church men in king’s court rather than church court • How English king used their authority to dominate the land -> rule over church • Beckett resisted the power • Henry’s men murdered the arch bishop in the church -> hurt his authority more than that of the church • Subjects were outraged by murder of an archbishop in a church • No violence allowed in a church, yet henry’s men had killed a bishop inside catholic cathedral • Fourth Lateran council -> another reform within the church -> require to swear to orthodox creed, all Catholics had to take communion on annual basis and reform the priesthood • Stop using church • 1215 -> king John of England guaranteed the church’s independence • Monastic orders • Gifts by wealthy nobles are commoners -> became power brokers and centers of worldly wealth • Excessive wealth and worldliness • Franciscans and Dominicans -> both stressed absolute poverty and maintaining church orthodoxy • Both groups were instrumental in converting pagans on the borders of the Christian world as well as the north and south Americans • Are hardcore orthodox catholic monks going out to make sure orthodox catholilcism is not challenged and there are converts • Church suffered blows that left it weakened and damaged • 1309 King of France ->Phillip the fair forced the pope move to Avignon so that King of France could control him • 1309-1377 - > Babylonian captivity -> pope was in France rather than Rome • First and foremost the bishop of Rome • 1377 -> moved back to Rome but died shortly after th • 1378, New pope Urban the 6 , created Reforms • Reforms angered the high church officials -> included bans on selling churchly office, pluralism (can’t be bishop of two different places), absenteeism (some bishops never made an appearance in their bishop area, did not administer to their Christian flocks), no more building castles, no more strains of illegitimate children, etc. th • High church officials said no- >Declared that Urban was not Pope -> Clement the 7 and both men claimed that they were both the Pope. Created a schism that undermined power of church • France supported Clement, England supported the Roman Pope (Urban) • German also supported the Roman Pope • Council of Churchmen disposed of all the popes and ordered a new one • Church was led by increasingly corrupt and worldly popes • Patrons of renaissance arts and thinkers • Artistic and cultural gains came at the spiritual wellbeing of people -> area of office going to the highest bidder, buying indulgences-> pay to get rid of some of your sins -> undermined the church’s authority • Problems of church could be dealt with from within • Reform has to be contained • Renaissance created a group of non-church or clerical people who could read and write • Invested in a salvation in their soul rather than in the physical church • Development of the printing press and a production of those texts, including translation of bible made it available to poor -> available to all • Commoners were deeply religious • Vast majority are deeply committed to Christian faith • Concerned about salvation of their souls • Church could not be relied on as an instant to save their souls • Through Jesus and church, salvation is possible • Church of 16, 18 century were a threat to salvation rather than an avenue of obtaining it • Ultimately breaks with the church • Friar Martin Luther
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