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HIST 1001-B Oct. 16,2012.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

Lecture 10 Marcus Aurelius (161-180 AD) Septimius Severus (r. 193-211 AD) Villa Diocletian (r. 2884-305 AD) Constantine (306-377AD) Tetrarchy Constantinople -Roman transition into an Empire around the time of Christ -Caesar was called the man who “destroyed Rome) (Republican anyway) - -> Rome itself was too large and diverse to be governed by the old way as a “city state” -Highly centralized control did not work -Too much demand -Roe threated to descend into constant chaos -Founding fathers actually looked at the Roman constitution (USA history) ->First 80 years they created a working Republic -the people wanted the strong lead to take charge even at the expense of liberties ->As long as there was peace and prosperity, the people would be happy to let the strong lead -Caesar left his empire to his grandnephew, Octavian -Senate refused to give rule to Octavian -> Octavian stormed in and took control, making his family name “Caesar” to mean head or ruler - Leidus and Mark Antony shared power together. -> But Antony was Ptolemaic (family of Macedonian leaders) Was married to Cleopatra -> This was a personal war as Caesar and Cleopatra used to be lovers (Caesar was the one who gave Cleopatra the title “Queen of Egypt” -> Antony was originally married to Caesar’s wife -Julius Caesar and Cleopatra’s son was supposed to be the heir to the throne -> Octavian defeated Antony and both Cleopatra and Antony committed suicide -> Antony killed the son -Renamed himself Augustus Caesar = Octavian Caesar -Undisputed ruler of the entire Mediterranean -Julius was stabbed to death for rejected the republican traditions-> he had taken all the power of the state onto himself -gave centralized controlled to one man -Augustus labelled himself as “prince” (first citizen) -Controlled council, military and tribunal power -Senate was also controlled by him so he appointed his own men -But he did pay lip service to Roman traditions to keep everyone happy. -This lessened his chances of ending up dead -People were willing to trade their rights for dictatorial peace -He removed corrupt administrators, put in his own -Sponsored artists and writers who hinted that his origins were divine -> In his death, he was made out to be a god and worshiped in the pantheon -He built programs, water supplies, made pipes and paved roads -He cracked down on adultery and created new small farms -Pushed the barbarians back into the East -9AD German (Herman the German) destroyed 3 of the 24 military legions -> The Germans would continue to plague until the empire was overrun by Germans several hundred years later -200 years of peace, prosperity and growth during the Pax Romana -Roman garr
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