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HIST 1001-B Feb 12,2013.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

HIST – 1001B Feb. 12, 2013 – Revolutions of 1848 Orleanists Legitimists Bonapartists General Louis Cavaignac (1802-1857) June Days (1848) Louis Napoleon (1808-1873) Louis Kossuth (1802 -1894) Frederick William IV of Prussia (r. 1840-1861) Frankfurt Assembly (May 1848 – March 1849) Grossdeutsch (“Greater Germany”) Kleindeutsch (“Lesser Germany”) • Revolutionary years (1848) when –isms first came out • Middle class and working class rebelled, we see there is tension amongst the middle class commoners, peasant commoners and urban working class commoners who want to retain the gains from the revolution • Middle class wants to expand political power and retain protections of property that were fundamental part • Urban working class want bread and work, tend to gravitate between socialism and redistributions • Smart aristocrats understand these issues and exploit them by driving a wedge between urban working class and the peasants • After revolution in 1848, workshops were set up to give work to the poor • The government gives the people two choices, join the army or get rid of workshops • People are angry that the workshops are taken away from them • Government in France is now ruled by middle class men who responds to the resistance from the working class with brutality • Army, made up of conservative peasants unsympathetic to the workers, led by Louis Cavaignac slaughters people, this is called “June days” and it ended the revolution • Everyone is watching France in Europe, they are powerful, the revolution is so important and it set a precedent • Marx watches the Revolution, divides into two classes, the Bourgeois and the Proletariat (working class people), can never trust bourgeois because they will always align themselves against the working class, because they fear the working class more, there can be no compromise • News of the revolution spread across Europe • Austrian Empire, stew of Nationalities, the Hungarians, largest minority rebelled against the Hapsburg monarch and declared its independence • Austria was ruled by Hapsburg who were Germans, were centred in Vienna • Aristocrats are frightened by nationalism • Led by Hungarian nationalist • Austrian empire faces nationalists, revolution in east, in capital, led by liberal revolution • Aristocratic rulers are in fright, the emperor agrees to demands of the students and allows the members of the Czech minority to hold a meeting of all Slavic people in Prague • Revolts break out in Northern Italy who are unhappy • Emperor flees the country as many different people sought independence and remake Austria was a liberal nation • In Germany, also trouble, student barricades put up in Berlin, capital of Prussia and some get shot by army • Part of a German federation that includes Austrian Empire • Fredrick William IV, panics and allows everyone to meet to reform the nation’s constitution • More radical protesters are demanding minimum wage, voting for all men, not just middle class men and 10 hour days • Middle class men all over Germany talk about merging 39 territories into one country and giving it a liberal society • At Frankfurt Assembly, They quickly get over controversy whether to put Austria as part of the nation or not • There is a debate on whether Austria should be included or not Two sides: Though should have included Austria, Grossdeutsch (“Greater Germany”) or take it out, Kleindeutsch (“smaller Germany) • Time is not on their side, decide on a Kliendetsch state, ended up looking towards Prussia rather than Austria, draft a Liberal constitution, offered King William the position as an emperor, calls it a “crown from the gutter”, rejects the commoner’s stance • Middle class liberals in Germany missed their chance • They instead have a Conservative constitution, decide to rule by divine right • Emperor held the upperhand with the army • In Austria, the peasants were converted from a hostile force to a conservative and stable constituency when they Ended serfdom • Peasants were the bulk of the army, aristocrats could bust the head of radical workers that both worker and aristocrats hated • Middle class now wanted order • In October of 1848, In Hungarian part of Austrian Empire, they were busy setting up a government that would meet aspirations of Hungarian people • Ethnic minorities that live in Hungary get no rights, Serbs, Romanians, etc resisted and Austria was more than happy to support the minorities • Both Socialists and revolutionary peoples were defeated in 1848 • In France, Parliament was created, and President was created, two candidates, Cavaignac and Napoleon III who had tried to seize power and gained no support from French people • Napoleon won ¾ of French vote, showed the allure that Napoleon name, people wanted that glory time back • The lessons: the intellectual and ideological ideas that had come out • Twin revolutions, political revolution in the economy and industrial • They showed that Europe’s conservative rulers were right to be frightened by the –isms • They posed a threat to positions and empires • Despite widespread ideology, conservative still had control. Of all the revolutions, few were successful. • The conflict between middle class liberals and commoners came into conflict of radical demands and socialists • Conservative elements were able to maintain control by exploiting division between peasants and working class • Peasants were conservative by nature, feared land would be taken away from them thanks to socialism and redistribution • Fear of abolishing private pr
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