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HIST 1001-B Feb 14,2013.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

HIST 1001-B Feb. 14, 2013 Family Life, Early Feminism, and Sex Temperance Movement Anti-Slavery Seneca Falls Convention (1848) Declaration of Sentiments (1848) Feminists Victoria Woodhull (1838-1927) Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) Women’s Suffrage Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928) Separate Spheres • Rise of women’s rights movement • Focused on the USA, because this is where it gets its earliest and most vocal start • Emphasis on all people being created equal and everyone having liberty • Massive evangelical christian reform movements • Rise of temperance and anti-alcohol movement in America • Women were many times the victims of the alcohol abuse • Women were not slaves, too strong to say that women were objects owned by men • Victoria Woodhall argued and took down Victorian values • Feminist critiques, Woodhall is a radical critique • Vast majorities of feminists were seen as radical and would separate themselves from Woodhall, more moderate feminists • Anthony, Stanton, etc, sought reform in property laws • If married women controlled property, would not be dependent on their husbands • When a woman marries a man, principal called coverture which meant that the man would become the sole owner of all the property before and during the marriage, he owned all property that she owned, the man could take the money from the woman • Economic rights needed for women • Adult women legally at 18, if you weren’t married, you could control your own property, only married women with their legal rights taken away • Men became legal adults at 21 • Also wanted to change law so that mothers would be able to get divorce AND keep the children • Increasingly after 1865, feminists sought the vote, movement was called “women’s suffrage” • Women were believed by men and women were the gentlier sex, more moral, more caring • As a result, politics, seen as masculine, foul and corrupt could be solved by pure women, need women in political system • Only because politics is so corrupt that women should not enter politics • Double edged sword argument • Some states and territories allowed women to vote in local elections, voting is a state matter, Wyoming is first to allow women vote • Ratification of 19 amendment -> only then could women run and vote • 1893, New Zealand allowed women the right to vote • In America, women picketed the White House to allow the right the vote, but it only tainted the movement • In England where suffrage activity was also pronounced, women engaged in more radical movements • Hunger strikes, men doctors tried to force women eating • Women engaged in bombing, window smashing and riots • Most of these women were very respected, middle class, gave it more legitimacy • Those who believed that women entering would bring in a dawn of a new age, women would be a block of political workings was false • Women who voted tended to vote same way as husband, brothers and fathers. Class, geography, etc. affected the vote • Power between men and women did not change • Political changes and status of women were slow in coming, change in family life was noticeable and of tremendous importance • Single most important fact was the incredible decline of birth rates in USA and Europe. • From 1800-1900, the birth expectancy was cut in half, from 8 to 4
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