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HIST 1001-B April 4,2013.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

Cold War World Bank (1944) International Monetary Fund (1947) The United Nations (1945) Iron Curtain Marshall Plan (1947) NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) Warsaw Pact (1955) Berlin Airlift (1948) Mao Zedong (1893-1976) Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD) Non-Aligned Movement Consensus European Coal and Steel Community (1951) Treaty of Rome (1957) European Common market (1957) Organization of Petroleum Exporters (OPEC) (1961) Arab Oil Embargo(1973) Margaret Thatcher (1925-) European Union (1991) • A year after WWII, US and the USSR who were allies before, became cold war enemies, divided up between East and West, military alliances reflected this pact, Americans led NATO and USSR led the WARSAW pact of Eastern European (Not Yugoslavia) • United States worked hard to bind the western nations to it • Europe was in shambles after the war, implemented the Marshall plan (US) • US offered Marshall plan, which was massive financial aid, offered to both Western and Eastern nations so long as they cooperate to create a democratic nation • Prohibited the eastern nations affiliated with the USSR • By restoring Europe’s economy, US created a massive market for their own goods which flowed to Europe • US was untouched by destruction of WWII while European industry was in shambles • American companies quickly shifted from war goods to consumer goods • Marshall plan gives Europeans money by which they can purchase American • Marshall plan built a stable capitalist, non-communist Europe • Blunted power of Soviet Union by keep the countries looking West rather than East for Leadership • Germany remained crucial component of European stability • Germany needed to be reintegrated into Western society • Marshall plan was a model of generous and far sided plans • When the US supplied billions to help rebuild western union, Soviet union was stripping Germany of the railroads and factories to go back to Soviet Union • Harmed Eastern Europe and created negative feelings • In 1948, Soviets closed off railway to Eastern Germany, connection was closed off • Americans airlifted coal and food for more than a year • The cold war quickly rearranges alliances, after nearly a year of supplying Berlin a year, soviets backed down and opened up the railway again • West Berlin was like a thumb in the eye for the Soviets • In 1949, formed alliance with Western nations, NATO, Soviets created Warsaw pact • The entire world essentially became a battle ground • In 1949, China, suffering from 18 years of occupation from hands of Japanese, when Chinese were not fighting foreign powers, they were having an internal fight, communists won the war, nationalists got shipped to the island of Taiwan (western, capitalist society) • Mao aligned China with Stalin, much of the world seemed to be under the control of Communism, trying to spread communism • Invasion of South Korea by Communist North Korea drove the US and USSR even further apart • The US supported by UN went to war in Korea to push back the North Koreans • US jet fighters fought against North Korean jet fighters (who were usually Soviets) • The cold war as a conflict was fought by proxies of these two nations • Took sides in local and regional sides as a way to compete with each other without actually going to war • In an age of Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs), could spell the end of the world. They signed Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), they were both very careful with each other • Many people were caught in cross fire as US and SU armed allies all over the world • Democratized Japan • Made allies by saying they were anti-communist • In the name of saving the world from communism, from Chile, Phillipines, Zaire, Saudi Arabia, etc. US armed and trained men who brutalized their own population • US earned the hatred and anger who saw their oppressors armed and trained by Americans • Many people who were on the fence see themselves brutalized by governments armed and trained by US, pushing them towards communism • Soviets were no angels, could hardly be sympathetic • Soviets supported murderous regimes • Supplied and trained anti-democratic insurgencies in Vietnam, Nicaragua, etc. • Cold war had victims all around the world • Nations caught in the middle were forced to choose sides • Many new nations, the West had rapidly decolonized countries • Europeans colonized areas incredibly after 1880 • Many colonies based on American societies and values • Other countries sought a middle path between alliance with US or Soviets to retain some independence in foreign policy or manipulating the two powers • No country could escape the gravity of the super powers who spied and made war on each other • Every conflict in the world and foreign policy decision was viewed by the Americans, a lot of times they made foreign policy clearer • In the cold war, choices were very clear, either on my side or your side, decision here reflects the global struggle against the other power • Soviet system collapsed in late 1980s, • 3 factors: • Central planned economy made by communist party leaders in capitals of their respective countries did not work, provided basic necessity, shoddy food, shoddy shelter and bad healthcare •
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