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Lecture

HIST 1001-B Feb 7,2013.docx

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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 1001
Professor
Hal Goldman

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Hist Feb.-7-13 Corn Laws Reform Bill of 1832 Sir Robert Peel (1788-1850( Queen Victoria (1819-1901) Charles X (r. 1824-1830) July Ordinances (1830) Louis-Philippe of the House of Orleans (r. 1830-1848) Neoclassicism Romanticism • Political, economic changes in the 19 century • See it in Romanticism, in art, sculptures, paintings, etc • Culture itself is impacting on ideologies, people who look at these paintings or listen to these symphonies cannot help but be forced to think about politics and ideologies as well • The revolution of 1830 and revolution of 1848 • Struggle over ideas -> from congress of Vienna up to 1858 when revolution breaks up • In 1815, England was most advanced country in Europe in terms of industrialism • It is advanced and its political agenda reflected that of the political agenda • Constitutional Monarchy and was so since 1688, King ruled subjected of the laws and by permission of the people (at least the wealthy people) • Despite its Rule of law and inherent right of its people, few people could actually vote and most power was held by English aristocrats that ruled directly in Parliament’s house of Lords, the hereditary children sits in this house, assume title by birth • The house of lords controlled what happened in what happened in the House of Commons as well, because they controlled the boroughs (or districts) that voted in the commoners • In 1820s, there was agitation by working and middle class for more change in politics • Liberal agenda is no means complete in 1820-30s • Corn laws prohibited the importation of grain into England, Fundamental violation of liberal economic theory arguing against any restriction on trade • Any time interfere with free trade, it would be an inferior good for more money • The poor were angry about the corn laws -> the diet of the poor comes from grain (bread, beer, ale) • The poor in England were poorer and hungrier • Working people protested these government policies • In 1819 British government cracked down in St. Peter’s Field (the battle of Peterloo) • Instead of making war on british enemies, it was on its own people • The government’s response to these renewed calls for greater democracy was to use repression • Outlawed unions, strikes, regulated newspapers • By 1830s, British government policy changes, in 1832, passed reform act that year, the number of men who could vote in England doubled • Property requirement to vote • If you owned some of the land, you would have an interest in stability and in keeping things as they are • The great fear in letting everyone vote is that democracy is dangerous, were afraid of mob rule, political power would mean that they would take from the wealthy for themselves • England’s government seeked to solve the problems that affected the factory workers • Could not ignore bread and butter concerns from the people • Parliament imposed an income tax so that the wealthy would contribute in proportion to their wealth • Got tariffs and repealed the corn law • 1847, laws passed to protect women, limited work to ten hours a day, men’s were also reduced • Queen Victoria comes into power around this time -> 1837 • Victoria was the niece and granddaughter of George III • She married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxcoburt • He advised her on how to rule in 1861 he died, she wore black for the rest of her life because of the loss of Albert • By the 19 century, kings and queen had little direct power • Could direct power through appointment and patronage • She had to be an example of decorum • Unlike other countries in Europe, they avoided much of the social unrest because of their actions • Avoided it even when it transformed from a rural society to the world leader in industry, transportation • Did so because it had a head start, industrial revolution started in England, respect for citizens and aristocrats understood that some reform was necessary to keep power th • In France, after the final defeat of Napoleon in 1815, installed Louis the 18 , he knew he was a constitutional Monarchy, agreed to defer power • Agreed to keep the Napoleonic legal code • Better to rule with limited power than to seek absolute power and get your head chopped off, unlike his brother • Louis 18 ’s Brother Charles didn’t think the same way • In 1820, Charles’ son was murdered and people said that it was because of Louis 18 th associating with middle class men • Louis 18 was persuaded to crack down, died in 1824, was succeeded by brother Charles • Middle class was outraged, many adopted liberal politics as a result o
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