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HIST 1001-B Feb 26,2013.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

HIST1001B National Unification Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont Sardinia (1820-1878) Count Camillo Cavour (1810-1861) Guiseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882) Prussia William I of Prussia (King of Prussia 1861 – 1888; Emperor of Germany 1871-1888) Germany Junkers Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) Zollverein (German Customs Union) • Italy who is historically a divided land mass, elections showed it was a divided landmass • Traditionally, Italy was carved up into principalities • Occupied by foreign powers, such as French Royal Families • Power of Nationalism ends up remaking Italy • In Italy and Germany, Nationalism, which is originally feared by Aristocrats is now embraced and harnessed • 3 main figures responsible for National Unification, King Emmanuel II, Garibaldi and Cavour. • Reunification could not have happened without everyone • Thinking motivated national reunification • Looking at Italy, it helps us understand how it happened • 3 symbols, aristocratic king, loyal but liberal minded PM and romantic and revolutionary nationalist (garibaldi) Came together to unify Italy in • During revolutions of 1848, his father lost his throne and it fell unto him, Victor Emmanuel • Rough and unsophisticated ruler who chose the PM • Aristocrats that kings rely on to run their countries • Cavour was of Aristocratic birth but understood forces changing Europe and knew they could not be ignored • Have to figure out a way to live and work with them • Societies had to change to accommodate industrial revolution, technology, international trade, urbanization • Accommodate change without creating chaos within society • Make the changes work for, rather than against, the people • Parliaments can be useful as well, they want more political power, parliamentary democracy, do not want rule by divine right of kings • Can retain legitimacy through Parliaments, people can debate • Better to have appear that Parliament is in control than have a ruler shown that they are just pulling all the strings • Cavour used tricks to control the revolution, used corruption, bribery, etc to get his way • Cavour joined Emmanuel’s kingdom so they could join forces • Engineer the unification with northern territories occupied by Austrians • Found ally in Napoleon the III • Cavour and Napoleon met in France to plan out getting Austria to attack Sardinia first to give France and Emmanuel to go into a war with Austria • Sardinia is a sovereign kingdom • So Cavour took soliders from all over Italy • Austria attacks because they fear that there will be an uprising in Austria’s Italy • Italy wins, and Napoleon fears the threat of a unified Italy to the power of the papal state • French scare • Napoleon fears the battle of war • Cavour, who engineered everything is furious that Emmanuel would make a deal with France to give Venice back • Cavour quits, there were revolts in Italian peninsula because Venice was being given away • Northern Italy joins Emmanuel’s Sardinia • Cavour was an aristocrat (He joins as PM for Emmanuel again) • Garibaldi was a radical revolutionary, a romantic figure who was sentenced to death in 1830, escaped to Latin America, participating in revolts overthrowing Spanish and Portuguese rulers • Garibaldi had a trademark red shirt (for revolution) • Proposed to conquer kingdom of two Scillies • The kingdom was controlled by foreign rulers, the Bourbons (Old Kings of France), ruled brutally and absolutely • Cavour gave Garibaldi the means to take back the two Scillies • Garibaldi wants to create Italian unification to create a Republic of Italy • Cavour was terrified of Garibaldi • Throw out modern rule of hated foreign monarchy • Papal states under control in Rome divided Italy between North and South • Cavour feared that Garibaldi’s action would divide Kingdom in North and Radical Republic in the South • Cavour sent the army into the South and the two struck a deal • Respected Emmanuel but hated Cavour, Garibaldi wanted a meeting with Emmanuel • Garibaldi’s d
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