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HIST 1001-B Feb 28,2013.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

HIST 1001B – February 28, 2013 Socialism in Germany and England Class Consciousness Paris Commune (1871(; Communards Socialism Ferdinand Lassalle (1825-1864) German Workingman’s Association (1863) State socialism August Bebel (1840-1913) Wilhelm Liebknecht (1826-1900) Social Democratic Party(SDP) (1869) Gotha Congress (1875) Erfurt Congress (1891) Henry Hyndman (1842-1921) Social Democratic Federation The Fabian Society (1884) Lib-Labs Trade Union Congress Keir Harrdie (1856-1915) Independent Labour Party (ILP) (1893) British Labour Party (1900) • Radicals demanded for economic restructuring • Many in Cold war were interested in Abstract political battles • During terror of French revolution, the poor in Paris demanded price control on food, the government mobilized the armies • As examples of power of the state to plan and direct the economy on behalf of the poor • There was a model of an active, powerful government • Men, women and children worked in factories • Families are disrupted in practises • Changing ways things are • There is an impact on politics and ideologies • Millions of men women and children now working in factories that did not exist before understand that they are part of a larger economic force and had different interest from middle class commoners, who they were aligned with before • They now saw themselves more aligned with workers in other factories • They developed with socialists called “class consciousness” shared interests by virtue of role they played in the economy • Wanted to do things that made the state more interested in their own needs • Main idea is that state should own means of production and transportation technology responsible for wealth creation • The state should manage these resources on behalf of needs of workers rather than behalf of the rich • These ideas come to be known as socialism • Socialism focused on distributing wealth of the nation • Socialism was by definition, redistributive and levelling, taking wealth and political power away from aristocratic class • Economically, by outright seizure or through taxes, socialism takes power from middle and upper class and distribute it more broadly to workers • Socialism is unpopular for aristocrats and the middle class • Success could only be loss of wealth • Socialism was almost always hostile towards the noble class • Implementing plans for socialism was loss of economic power • Karl Marx argued that as society industrialized, it was inevitable that there would be class warfare between everyone, proletariat would rise up and defeat the bourgeois • Means of production, land and factory that peasants needed would be there, no longer would the bourgeois steal the money from the proletariat • In Marx’s forumulation, rule would be of each according to their ability and the rule according to their need • Socialism was most advanced in Germany and England, revolutionary spirit flamed out in France following disaster of Franco-war • France was defeated, Napoleon III styled himself under his uncle, Napoleon I trying to have autocratic rule • By 1870, result was a constitutional Monarchy in France • Hereditary Monarch • Napoleon III lost control over events in Italy and Mexico, helping install an Austrian as emperor • Paris Army was sent to slaughter Parisians in May of 1871, aristocratic officers directing peasant soldiers • 20,000 Parisians were killed by French army, supporters of the communion took to French libraries, burning many records by accident • Marxist were looking towards the Paris Commune • Two ideologies clashing • France struggled as a republic for next 40 years • Republicans, Monarchists and Socialists, those proposing socialist ideas competed with conservatives and liberals, both that typically held power • People most likely to support socialist policies, peasants and workers, were shut out of politics, had little wealth, but they did have numbers, always threat of rising up against government with violence • The world changed dramatically, trends already noticed in first half of 19 century had taken on greater force and speed by second half • The industrial revolution transformed European and North American revolutions transformed into mass societies • Factories and armies, increasingly key measures of nation’s power needed people to staff them • Had to be willing to cooperate with each other in mass societies • Government and armies had to cooperate • If nations wanted to compete with other nations in Europe and in the world • Most ordinary people were ignorant and apathetic about politics ath world around them
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