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HIST 1001-B Jan 8,2013.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

Lecture 20 – Reformation continued John Wycliffe (d. 1384) Lollards Henry VIII (1491-1547 AD) Puritans Cathrine of Aragon (1485 – 1536AD) Anne Boleyn (d. 1536AD) Charles V (r. 1519 – 1556) Sir Thomas More (D. 1535ad) Puritans Edward VI (d. 1553AD) Mary I (aka Mary Tudor aka Bloody Mary) (r. 1553-1558 AD) Phillip II of Spain (r. 1556-1598AD) Elizabeth I (r. 1558-1603AD) Puritans Spanish Armada (1588AD) The Counter Revolution Council of Trent (1545 – 1563AD) Ignatius of Loyola (d. 1556AD) Society of Jesus (aka “The Jesuits” 1540AD) Edumund Campion (1540-1581AD) • Reformation against the monopoly of faith held by the Roman Catholic Church • Look specifically at Martin Luther (protestants) -> focused on individual’s role on their own salvation, get in through faith that Jesus Christ is son of God • Anything other than faith will not earn your way into heaven • Assault on Catholic church’s authority-> they always pushed that it was necessary to obey the church theology and rules • Individual’s relationship with God • John Calvin in Geneva, grim vision of human nature -> everyone is sinner, vast majority is going to hell, nothing can be done about it, at the beginning of world, it was already decided to go to hell (predestination) • Why are Monarchs interested in Protestantism? • Greed and opportunism that breaking with the catholic church was presented • Secular church could free themselves of the influence of the church and their rules. Strengthened by the literate commoners, better beaurocracies • Luther argued that if we become protestant, kings don’t have to argue with church with who was in charge of the kingdom • Thousand years of cultivation made church very wealthy -> landholdings, artworks, etc • Kings are princes can never get enough money • Hardship -> Monarchs would never want to be excommunicated so could not take properties from churches • But if you argue that the church was wrong or evil, then it would be just to take the properties • Monarchs would enrich by kicking out the church and taking their lands • Further the trend of centralization and building of coherent states • Could steal all the church offices -> if people are already protestant, could endear the commoners • Used dispute protestant and Catholics, to go to war with each other (France [catholic] and England[protestant]) • When going to war, there’s now a religious aspect • Can build tighter alliance between protestants • It was only because of support, Luther is not burned at stake -> German princes protected him • Mothves were mixed, political and economic motive • 18 century -> dramatic growth of literacy and intelligence for commoners • Increase of wealth generated by trade • Ordinary people were now a force to be reckoned with, Kings now aligned themselves with their commoners • Reformation in England -> Developments meant that catholic church would have an impact on the rest of the world • There was an increase of literacy and a rise in middle class • Like Luther, Wycliffe translated the bible in the vernacular, into English -> made it easily accessible, don’t need a priest to explain what it means to you • Translating bible to local languages undermines power of local church • Wycliffe sought reform in England, in early 1500s, it was actually punishable by death to spread the ideas • Reformation in England was a less popular movement, different from the one in Mainland Europe • English king Henry VIII, In his youth was an impressive renaissance king • 1509 he came to the throne, married Catharine of Aragon -> daughter of Spanish king • Catharine was married to brother, Arthur, but he died in 1502 • Pope (Church) gave special permission for Catharine to get married to Henry • 18 years of marriage, Henry wanted a divorce, he wanted a son, Tudor family, crown in England was a weak one. Catharine had only had 6 kids, only one survived, a girl • Catharine could not give him a son and Henry became enamoured to Anne Boleyn • Henry asked the Pope to become divorced, said marriage was invalid from the beginning because she was his “sister in law” • Catharine was Aunt of Charles the V who had a close ally with the Pope, Charles would not let that happen • English kings battled with the Catholic church too much • Suggestion: Make the king head of church • Would strengthen his grip and solve his wife •
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