Class Notes (811,170)
Canada (494,539)
History (652)
HIST 1001 (126)

HIST 1001-B March 14,2013.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Carleton University
HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

HIST- 1001B March 14, 2013 World war I and Revolution and Dictatorship in Russia The Great War (World War I) (1914-1918) Francis Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary (d. 1914) Sarajevo “Blank Check” Ivan Bloch (1836-1902) Schlieffen Plan Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria) Allies (France, Britain, Russia (Until December 1917)), Italy, US (As of April 1917) Trench Warfare Total War Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) The Fourteen Points League of Nations • Begins in the Balkins • In 1914, Francis Ferdinand, decided to go to Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia- Herzegonvina, The Serb Nationalists were hostile • People warned Ferdinand not to go there • Archduke Ferdinand, on June 28 , 1914, he and his pregnant wife drove slowly in an open car, Serb terrorists lined the motorcade road lined with bombs. • A Serb nationalist killed his wife, Sophie and Ferdinand • Austria-Hungary thought it was a good idea to settle things with Serbia • Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia, but was afraid that if they attacked Serbia, Russia would come to the aid of Serbia • This is why the Balkans are so dangerous • What happens between them can drag these great powers in • Russia is a Slavic country, sympathetic to the Serbs as fellow Eastern Orthodox Christians • As a result, Austria-Hungary wanted back up if it attacked Serbia, Germany, Prince William felt that it had an advantage over Russia and issued a “blank check” • Austria-Hungary sent an ultimatum for the serbs • Austria-Hungary believed that this ultimatum would be refused and that would give Austra-Hungary a pretext to attack Serbia • But Serbs agreed to terms, Austria-Hungary declared war anyway • All great powers were at war with France, Italy refused to support Germany or Austria- Hungary • The great powers went to war in 1914 as a result of Austria-Hungary’s attack • Large philosophical reasons and military considerations to explain how an Austrian- Hungary prince could lead to WWI • Scientific theories of Charles Darwin were put onto explanations of human society • Justify imperialism • Darwinian theory could be justify economic liberalism – advocated for competition also justified the racism • Saw the conflict between people as a struggle between the strong and the weak • There is no room for compromise in the struggle, the strong must rise and the weak must fall • Compromise was out and brute struggle was in • The language was used in their own country’s struggles • Leaders on the great power all capitalized on the ideas • Aristocrats transferred their aims to the aims of the entire country • Most ordinary people were happy and enthusiastic about the war • Shoot it out and settle the matters like men • Europe had not fought a huge war in year • In their own countries, they generated enormous hostilities • All the animosity over longstanding grudges both overseas and within Europe had reached a fevored pitch • Europeans in France, Germany and Austria-Hungary, seeming ever outstanding progressive societies • Progressive march to a shiny new future • People in 1914 did not know what was possible • Spectators cheered on the men • War would embitter a generation • All the great powers planned for war which they felt was inevitable • Thought war would be of a short duration • 6 week war, Prussia and Germany come in, it’s over and move on • Long war is politically destabilizing • Work of a Polish banker Named Ivan Bloch, showed that economics were tied between trade, only losers, destroying your trading partners would destroy you as well • Argued that modern war would be long, defensive and rely on trench warfare • Argued that nations would be mobilized, lead to political instability • Germany was fearful of long war • Look not to the Franco-Prussian war, but the American Civil war, war with its massive battles • Sustained the war for 4 years and killed 600,000 American men and maimed a million more • Looked towards Franco-Prussian war in 1812 instead • Known was the Schlieffen plan, Germany expected that it would have to fight a war on two fronts, against France and against Russia, a result of Germany getting rid of Bismark’s three against two • Germany’s got to knock France out of the war before it attacks Russia • Expected to put 2 million people in the field • Takes a long time to mobilize men • Took Russia even longer to mobilize its troops and its plan into action in the case of a European war • As soon as Russia thought there was a chance at war, it needed to mobilize in time to meet the expected attack • When Russia mobilizes its armies, everyone else mobilizes as well • Germany’s response to Austria-Hungary’s declaration of war against Serbia, was to send 2 million men into netural Belgium to attack France • Great powers had completely lost control over their diplomatic and military strategy • Schlieffen plan was unsuccessful, Belgium was neutral by treaty, instead of letting the Belgiums through, they fought like hell • Western Fron
More Less

Related notes for HIST 1001

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.