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HIST 1001-B March 28 ,2013.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

March 28, 2013 Hist - 1001B Appeasement Anschluss (1938) Sudetenland (1938) Munich Pact (1938) Lebensraum (“Living space”) Blitzkrieg (“Lightening war”) Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) Winston Churchill (1874-1965) The Battle of Britain (August- September 1940) Operation Barbarossa (June 1941) Battle of Stalingrad (Aug. 1942- Feb 1943) Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) Lend Lease Act (1941) Pearl Harbour (Dec. 7, 1941) “Rape of Nanking” (1937) Dieppe Raid (August 1942) Allies (Britain and commonwealth, US, Soviet Union, China, The Free French and others) Operation Torch (North African Campaign) (November 1942) General George S. Patton (1885-1945) Normandy Landings (June 6, 1944) (D-Day, “Operation Overlord”) Iwo Jima (Feb. 1945) Okinawa (April 1945) Hiroshima/Nagasaki (August 6/9, 1945) • Germans built coastal defenses all along the channel, the question was where the invasion would come, Hitler believed that the invasion would be at Calai, allies would want to cross on the narrowest point and land on the most shallow of beaches • Allies put George S. Patton at Calai, allies would put his best general there • Trucks, tanks, etc. were actually all fakes, threw off the German spies • On June 6, 1944, known as D-day, allies stormed the beaches of Normandy • Even after forces began to land, Hitler believed that it was a fake and the real invasion would be at Calai, refused to bring in reinforcements • At 4/5 beaches, the German resistance was light, but at Omaha beach, the German defensive fire were murderous, killed 3000 in first 20 mins • “Saving Private Ryan” • Beaches and land stormed by American beaches, Canadian beaches, staffed by German soldiers recuperating from war • Omaha was only beach guarded by highly trained troops • Despite the violence at Omaha, the allies kept coming, the allies forced the Germans back into Germany and the Soviets pushed in the East • Everywhere the soviets moved would come into their sphere of influence for the next few years • Germans are taken by surprised when Allies go through Normandy • Everyone where that the Soviets march west will come under their control for next 50 years • Once Germans were defeated, there was horrible hard fighting from Allies • Once the Germans were defeated and surrendered, the US turned to Japan • Already, US troops engaged with Island fighting with Japan • Because of Japanese devotion to Emperor, when you fight, you either prevail or die trying • Americans had to kill every single Japanese solider to win, even civilians killed themselves to prevent being detained by the Americans • British fought in the Southern camps • Mostly an American fight • The Japanese were so devoted, as late as 1974, refusing to accept that the war had been lost for 30 years, the soldiers were still found hiding out, if they surrendered, they would be dishonoured • Feb. 1945, captured Iwo Jima and in April 1945, captured Okinawa • Americans suffered 7 thousand dead and 18 thousand ruins on taking the few miles • Iwo Jima was the first that was considered home territory in more than 4 thousand years in Japanese territory • At Okinawa, Japanese lost more than 100,000 soldiers killed • Americans lost some 40,000 soldiers who were killed or wounded • US government who detonated the first ever a-bomb, part of the Manhattan project, warned that if Japan did not surrender, they would be totally destroyed • The Japanese refused to surrendered, in 1945, they dropped a bomb on Hiroshima, Japan did not surrender, in Nagasaki, they bombed again, Japan still would not surrender. • The emperor said that they needed to surrender in a recording • Morality was hotly debated • Not first time that large civilian centers were targeted • Americans and British did a fire bombing in Germany • Americans fire bombed Tokyo, killing more Japanese than in Hiroshima or Nagasaki • In August 1945, nature of weapon was different, President Truman argued that by ending the war immediately, they would save millions of both Japanese and Americans • Others argued that Americans could have dropped one bomb on an uninhabited island o Americans only had
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