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HIST 1001-B Jan 10,2013.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

Lecture 21 – Europe in 1700 – participation and authority Louis XIV (1638-1715) “the Sun King” “L’etat, c’est moi” – “I am the state” Versailles James I (R. 1603-1625) Divine Right of Kings Sir Edward Coke (1552 – 1634) Court of Star Chamber and High Commission Charles I (r. 1625 – 1649) Cavaliers and Roundheads Oliver Cromwell (1599 – 1658) Interregnum (“between monarchs”) (1649-1660) Charles II (r. 1660 – 1685) James II (r. 1685 – 1688) William and Mary (r. 1689 – 1702) Glorious Revolution (1688 – 1689) English Bill of Rights (1689) Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679): Leviathan (1651) John Locke (1632 – 1704); Second Treatise on Government (1690) • Bureaucratically, Europe was fractured by religious and political rivalries • Europe is overwhelming rural, local and decentralized • Compare Northwest Europe to the Arab world, which had conquered the Mediterranean for 800 years already -> they had networks of roads and communication, they have mathematics, etc • Was sophisticated, diverse and urban • Predecessor Rome was the same way • Muslim situation had spread like wildfire • Arabs traded with the heart of Africa and shifted up and down • Muslim armies made regular incursions of Europe • Arab world in 1500 would have been a strong dominating world • China was grandest civilization, ancient, sophisticated, rich, huge, etc • Largest and most magnificent cities were in China • Developed paper money, gunpowder, etc. • Under Ming Dynasty, massive Chinese fleets sailed oceans • Ruler of China had a giraffe from Africa in his Zoo • Chinese believed their empire was the centre of the universe, many different places travelled to China with gifts to show respect to Chinese Empire • They changed to an inward looking land • Arab world and China would be second to Europe • Constant warfare, religious and cultural differences in Europe became positive trades • Many European countries brought technology and colonized Africa, parts of Asian and America, they brought back their riches to their home countries • China was consumed with defending their empire from factions and from the invasions of Mongolians • Chinese law made it a crime to leave china by sea without special permission • Western mathematicians applied principals from Arabs to things like time and space • Jewish and Arabs developed geographies but it was Europeans who used that technology to travel around. • Chinese used gunpowder to make fireworks, but Europe used it to make weapons • What Europe gained in technology, they lost in stability -> Others kept their stability at the loss of advancement of technology • In 1700, life for most Europeans was not marginally different than from most of the world’s population, most people lived off land as peasants, many of them landless. • Subsistence living • As in other parts, vast majority of wealth was controlled by small number of nobles • One’s status depended entirely on who one’s parents was. Did not matter how motivated or bright you were, if they peasants, you were peasant • It was legal, the three greatest states, the clerics, the nobility and the commoners, they were legal classifications, they were by law • The kind of justice that one received or had opposed on you was dependent on which one you belonged to. • Commoners had the largest burden and the least amount of rights. • As a peasant with no legal rights with other states, had to rely on relationships with people • Their promise to you was only as good as the promise, no legal way to enforce it • Chief means of upward mobility (education now) was restricted to the church • The only way to go u through social mobility was the join the church • If you were a commoner and you were wealthy (from trade and manufacturing), you could buy a noble title, or you could marry a daughter off to a noble family • For most, society remained rigidly above it • Poor were to serve their better • Those in power were to serve with decency and kindness • This system of social stratification was similar to that that existed in all the w
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