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HIST 1001-B Jan 31,2013.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

HIST-Jan. 31, 2013 • Talking about 4 fundamental ideologies, socialism, liberalism, conservatism and nationalism • Liberalism -> liberal, political and economic journal, 19 century liberalism tends to look more like conservatism or republic system today • An ideology of the bourgeois middle class, commoners that are increasingly well educated, well off, responsible for the economics, want a bigger say in the economics of their country • Want the government to stay out of economy and want equal justice under law while not being squashed by the middle class • Support things like freedom of religion, speech, etc. so that the government cannot use force to get in the way of ideas and politics • Relationship between liberalism and nationalism • Good liberal would generally embrace nationalism, it would threaten the power of the aristocrats who tended to reside over kingdoms or empires • Thought foreign rule was bad for economic interest • By imposing trade and tariff to protect local industries • Middle class commoners making living off monarchy are opposed, but vast majority are not making living off Monarchy, it’s off trade • May support nationalism • Liberalism’s main goals, freedom, and support for nationalism • Samuel Smiles, “self help” • Wedgewood, classic example of a guy that starts with nothing and rises as a result of his own abilities and talents, poster child for liberal middle class commoners • Single handily created the British China industry • Youngest of 13 children, not much left for youngest child • Father was a potter, made pots for a local market by hand • Born poor and crippled, starts off as a small craftsman, gradually expands his business • Studied chemistry on his own in his spare time, created modern China industry • His industry spins out and helps develop transportation industry in England • Have the industrial revolution, fuelled by ordinary poor individuals • Raise not only themselves, but the whole nation, he is famous for Jasper ware • Smiles was interested in Wedgewood, who is seen as the epitome and symbol of the new common man who is increasingly important for helping create the nation and its power • Did it by himself • Effort of individuals given the power to succeed make the nation a stronger place for everyone. • Individual efforts to help himself has created wealth and opportunity for the entire nation, everyone benefits • Would rather go towards liberalism • At the heart of liberalism was the belief of the individual • Would contribute to a better world for everyone • For every Wedgewood, there were thousands of factory workers • Liberal economic theory justified selfishness and greed • Dictated most work for lowest wages • ‘Iron law of wages’, race to the bottom, competition, cut costs (theory turns out to be wrong) • Others argue for different approach to economic matters than liberals • Deeply feared by most middle class were the varying ideologies that fell under the term “socialism” • It is a response to changing economic traditions • Reflected social and cultural changes and both liberal and socialism rise in response to this reordering of European society • Vast people engage in subsistence agriculture, grow just enough food for themselves • Many farmers could not grow more food past subsistence • Agriculture, globally is inefficient • There is a limit on how big cities can get and how big people in societies can be who do not grow their own food • After 1700, increases in productivity, transportation and colonization of other countries, as well as the expansion of African slavery allow for the expansion for how much food is available • Increase in transportation efficiency • England had many rivers to trade • British colonial systems had ready markets for manufactured goods • British navy assured safe passage across Atlantic, India, etc. • Foundation of coal brought England up • More food is available to free up people to work in other places, such as mining, railroads • More technological advances letting Britain take advantage • Steam Engines, etc. no more water power, coal comes into use and steam engine is perfected, can relocate to cities • Factories are in cities because it easier to import, export and saves on transportation costs as well as access to cheap labour • Eli Whitney, allowed cotton fibre to be separated faster • Cotton was incredibly expensive because you had to separate seeds and cotton away, took slave a day to process one pound of cotton • Cotton Gin, makes it easier to process cotton • Mechanical looms are created, cotton becomes cheaper • Increases market for product • Spread from England to Europe • Profound effect on lives of people • Large land owners forced many people from the land • Poor people flocked from town to cities where new factories demanded labour • In 1800, only 2 cities with population over 100,000 • In 1900, there were 27 with populations over 100,000 • With little no effort by the government, people were crammed into small houses and disease was common. • Access
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