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Lecture

HIST 1001-B March 7 ,2013.docx

6 Pages
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Department
History
Course Code
HIST 1001
Professor
Hal Goldman

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Hist – 1001B March 7, 2013 Imperialism Colonialism Social Darwinism Suttee (wife burning) Rudyard Kipling The White Man’s Burden (1899) George Orwell “Shooting an Elephant” (1936) Suez Canal Khedive of Egypt, Ismail (r.1863-1879) Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) William Gladstone (1809-1898) King Leopold II of Belgium (r. 1865-1909) Edmund Morel (1873-1924) Berlin Conference on Africa (1884-1885) Effective Occupation JA Hobson, Imperialism (1902) Fashoda (1898) Open Door Policy in China (1899-1900) Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) • Talking about imperialism and American assertion of influence in African and Asian (some cases) Latin American peoples • New imperialism to distinguish it • After investing themselves in their colonies, why after 1869, Europeans and some Americans saw the mark of a spree • Explanations and motives that included sociological imperatives • As a result there is a rise of nationalism • Were talking about the way in which one event in distant part of the world ended up triggering a huge imperialistic action with European powers • Suez Canal for example, which was initially a French project which the British realized had a great strategic idea with them • Canal was controlled by corporation and was controlled by the pharaoh of Egypt (Khedive Ismail of Egypt • Khedive did not want the Suez canal, rejected it, so they went to the British to sell the Canal, Benjamin Disraeli needed 4 million pounds to buy the Canal • Gladstone, Disraeli’s rival was angry that the Canal was bought, it was a “private” venture • This was able to end up dictating official foreign policy • Suez situation, soon after England brought the shares in the Canal operation, when nationalists in Egypt were influenced, they were furious about a private company building the Canal • Both French and British were invested in the Canal • There is now a reaction among Egyptians, do not want foreigners to run the Canal • Gladstone sends troops in to support the power • Those British troops never leave, occupy Egypt until 1956 • British’s interest in Egypt spread to Sudan in order to control the Nile river • Thus, Sudan took on an importance and would become a source of conflict between local tribesman, England and France • King Leopold II of Belgium carved out a private fiefdom in the Congo, belongs to the king, not Belgium, it was rich in ivory and natural runner • Population went from 20 million to 10 million as a result of Leopold’s occupation, forced them to take rubber, in late 19 century, bikes were in high demand • If the village was not keeping up with the demands for rubber, he would burn the village. • English Edmund Morel, 25 year old, works for shipping firm, noticed that the ships would come with rubber, but would go back with armies or firearms or go back empty • Noticed that they were not paying for the Rubber and Ivory, must have been slavery • Enlisted the people to help end Leopold’s vicious role • Leopold had to give up personal control over the Congo and went under control of the Government of Belgium • Leopold’s efforts were extreme • Shows us the cruelty and exploitation • Native wealth and dignity loss • Shows that many Europeans and Americans were sensitive to the judgements of Europeans • Shows that at least one ordinary person can make a difference in the world • British were worried about Leopold’s control over the Congo river, which is the major route to access the interior of Africa • British and Portuguese took the mouth of the river to control the crisis • Result was the Berlin Conference in Africa 1884 and 1885 • Held the congress to resolve their differences without causing war “congress system” to perpetuate stability • European powers meant to lay ground rules for seizing territory • In the old days, whoever got to territory and planted their flag first gained the land • Berlin Conference required effective occupation • Had to effectively occupy African lands to recognize their claims • Means that they have to actually occupy the territory and govern it, actually build infrastructure, conference also required European nations to work to end slavery in Africa by supressing it in the Arabic and African nations • Congo and Niger river were to be opened to free trade • The people in Africa had no say as to what was to happen to them • It is a common misconception that the Europeans met up to carve up Africa, instead the Berlin Conference was to made to stop people from occupy it • Claims were not made because the lands were valuable, in fact it was not, it was to keep other European countries from taking it • What happens in Africa is extraordinary in 1878, colonial occupation is miniscule • Can see that there is very little African colonisation • Yet by 1900, can see that every single bit is claimed by European Nations • Only few countries not colonized, Ethiopia and Liberia • Most colonization efforts were made not by governments but by private companies granting charters • Typically companies could not make a profit, had to be bailed out by government to maintain occupation • Withdraw governments into conflict in Africa • Imperialism is a waste of money • Private ventures and corporations were subsidized by government and military of their countries • All these men in no proper sense, the accredited representatives are at liberty to call upon the \ occupation • Private adventures go to distant land, ask government to bail them out, they drive British foreign trade • In 1898, Steamed up the Nile river into Sudan
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