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HIST 1001-B March 12,2013.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

HIST-1001B March 12, 2013 Age of Bismarck and Towards War Reichstag Catholic Centre Party (Germany Kulturkampf (cultural struggle/cultural war”) Emperor Francis Joseph (of Austria Hungary) (r.18.48-1916) Dreikaiserbund (Three emporors League) Treaty of San Stefano (1878) Congress of Berlin *1878) Willian II of Germany (1888-1918) Kaiser (Caesar) Boer War (1899-1902) Kruger Telegram (1896) Alfred von Tirpitz (1849 – 1930) Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) Algeciras Conference (1906) The Buchlau Agreement (1908) Triple Alliance Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy Triple Entente England, France, Russia Dreadnought Agadir • Bismark tried to limit the power of the Catholics and socialists in Germany, this represents the few of his defeats in politics • Point out a failure to learn an important lesson • Bismark believed that you could not be Catholic and be a good and loyal Germany • Ends up being completely untrue, when siren call of nationalist come in 1914, good socialists and Catholics line up to march to war • Resulted in massive slaughters beforehand during WWII of other people deemed reliable, not patriotic or not part of the nature • Bismark had to communicate with the liberals who were less of a threat to the socialists • Bismark proposed a tariff on grain • Liberals increasingly trusted Bismark • Grain tariffs were good for the conservative Junkers • Love tariffs on foreign grain • Bismark proposed tariffs on iron and steel • Rhine and rural value • Iron and steel industry, dominated by good liberals • Bismark divides the liberals on this question • Many liberals stood to power • Bismark won loyalty of masses by providing them with health, retirement, showing them that unification did not threaten privledged position • Imposed tariffs on foreign iron and steel • Bismark’s foreign policy • Congress of Vienna in 1815, unification of Germany, 5 great powers in Europe, Germany, France, Austria-Hungary, England and Russia • Bismark’s Germany was right in the middle surrounded by all sides by potentially hostile people • If you are Germany, you are afraid of the countries around them • Bismark always wants Germany to be 3 against two, as long as Germany is in the three, doesn’t matter who the other two are • In the first place, Austria-Hungry and Russia are autocracies like Germany • Rule by monarchs and heredity are popular • Bismark feared that France would want revenge against it, especially to gain boarder territory • Austria-Hungary and Russia had both had their military weaknesses exposed • Russia had freed its serfs in 1861 in feudalism in Europe • Austria found managing all its ethnic groups difficult • Hungarians in the east agreed to manage their barbarians, slavs and Muslims • Both parts of the Hungarian Empire were under Habsburg empire • Like the Holy Alliance from 1815, it was to serve as a cooperative revolution • All agreed to cooperate with each other • Bismark naturally wants to align himself with Russia and Austria-Hungary even though they had serious problems • Russia turned its trade towards the Balkan states • Any unrest in Eastern Europe threatens Russia’s strategic interests • Russian government was under pressure to go to Balkans and save the Christians from being converted to other religions o Lots of reasons for the two to go to war • Turkish repression in Balkans was given quickly • Popular repression on the Tsar • Slavic nations carve out the old Ottoman empire • Development worried GB, Austria Hungary, and Germany • Bulgaria is Slavic, Orthodox state filled with Christians • Britain was worried about Russian control of Turkey which could interfere with Britain’s access to colonies in Asia • Congress of Berlin in 1878, Russia was forced to give up some of its gains from war in the Ottoman Empire • Sentiment of ordinary people can no longer be ignored • Russian people are angry at what happened at the Congress of Berlin • Russia began military manoeuvres in its territories in Poland • Bismark signed a treaty in Austria that each would support the other if Russia ever attacked • Italy later joined with Austria-Hungry in what was known as the Triple Alliance • In 1887, the treaty was not made, so Bismark agreed to write a treaty that they would not be each other’s enemy if they are attacked • As a result of the manoeuvring, Bismark made sure that the 3-2 number was kept • In 1892, they dropped Bismark • In 1890, Bismark had been in the he
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