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HIST 1001-B March 26,2013.docx

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

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Lecture 3 – March 26, 2013 World War II Appeasement Anschluss (1938) Sudetenland (1938) Munich Pact (1938) Lebensraum (“Living space”) Blitzkrieg (“Lightening war”) Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan) Winston Churchill (1874-1965) The Battle of Britain (August- September 1940) Operation Barbarossa (June 1941) Battle of Stalingrad (Aug. 1942- Feb 1943) Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) Lend Lease Act (1941) Pearl Harbour (Dec. 7, 1941) “Rape of Nanking” (1937) Dieppe Raid (August 1942) Allies (Britain and commonwealth, US, Soviet Union, China, The Free French and others) Operation Torch (North African Campaign) (November 1942) General George S. Patton (1885-1945) Normandy Landings (June 6, 1944) (D-Day, “Operation Overlord”) • Deal with a mass society as a result of a rise • Thought WWI was the war to end all war, but was just a prelude to WWII • Taking the concept of total war with Western technology and mobilization of all aspects of society to new highs • Results were devastating, changed the face of the globe in which genocide and nuclear annihilation became terrible realities • Little debate about what precipitated WWII • Hitler’s desire to kill and enslave caused WWII • By late 1930s, Hitler had rearmed his nation, pulled out of League of Nations • Saw Western nations, France and Britain as weak and without backbone • Both leaders in France and Britain wanted to avoid another war • Hitler’s Nazism preached inevitable war • Both nations were so scared at the prospects of war, they let Hitler have his way • In the end, they had to go to war anyway • The greatest lesson people took away from the war, the policy of appeasement, peace at any price • Having gained controlled domestically, Hitler turned to foreign policy • He used same tactics, moved cautiously, prepared to back down as in Germany, faced almost none • Hitler had two platforms that drove his foreign policy • First was to gain control over all German lands and German speaking people, remilitarize the Rhineland • Hitler in 1936 marching into Rhineland was a violation of Treaty of Versailles, if the French had attacked when they remilitarized the Rhineland (which is German territory) Hitler would have retreated • But France did not • First goal was to incorporate German speaking areas of Austria and Czechoslovakia • Mussolini, scared of Hitler prepared to fight against the Nazis • In 1938, used threats, bullying and propaganda, held a referendum, but Hitler invaded Austria in 1938, Many Austrians agreed with the Anschluss (Forcible joining of Germany and Austria together) (Was very popular) • Increasingly contemptuous of Britain and France, Hitler now turned to Czechoslovakia • Czechoslovakia was pro western democracy, excellent weaponry, strong army, fought Hitler and stood up against Hitler (used to be part of Austrian-Hungary Empire) • In the Sudetenland (what it was called, Western Germany) was where most of the Germans in Czechoslovakia were in • But the Czechs kept giving the Nazis in the Sudetenland what they wanted • Looked like there would be a war in the Sudetenland, and so Hitler backed down • The British and French were scared that they would have to interfere and defend Czechoslovakia • Great Britain flew to talk to Hitler 3 times in 12 days to try to talk to Hitler • Chamberlain (GB PM) gave Hitler everything he wanted, so Hitler took Czechoslovakia, he said tht giving that area to Hitler, they could avoid war • At the end of the year, Germany had already taken over all of Czechoslovakia • Message from Hitler was clear: the West would always try to appease Germany • Uniting all German speaking people in the Nation, saw Lebensraum, saw those spaces as lands to feed the Germany people • Hitler planned to invade, enslave those people, work them to death and then give the land to the Germans • France had a self defense treaty with Poland • Beyond Poland was Soviet Union • Hitler’s plan would definitely create war with USSR (the slavs) • Would get into two front war with France and USSR • As a result of this fear, signed a non aggression pact with USSR, Secret parts said that they would carve up parts of Poland • Hitler intended to keep the pact only until they wanted to annihilate the Soviets • Age old conflict between Germans and Slavs, opposing ideologies, war would come on some front • Hitler’s deal bought him time and a freehand to make war without having to worry about the Soviet Union • French and the British now understood war was imminent in Sept. 1, 1939, Germans smashed into Poland, “Blitzkrieg” or Lightning war, they decimated the Polish army • France declared war on Germany • British and French troops mobilized but for 6 months, no one did anything • In Spring of 1940, Germany took Holland, etc and even parts of France • Both countries decided that best way to avoid war was to hope it would never happen • Europe was inhabited by a crazy leader • Policy of B
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