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HIST 1001 Lecture Notes - George Orwell, Harry Hawkins, Lend-Lease

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HIST 1001
Hal Goldman

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Lecture 3 – March 26, 2013 World War II
Anschluss (1938)
Sudetenland (1938)
Munich Pact (1938)
Lebensraum (“Living space”)
Blitzkrieg (“Lightening war”)
Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Japan)
Winston Churchill (1874-1965)
The Battle of Britain (August- September 1940)
Operation Barbarossa (June 1941)
Battle of Stalingrad (Aug. 1942- Feb 1943)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945)
Lend Lease Act (1941)
Pearl Harbour (Dec. 7, 1941)
“Rape of Nanking” (1937)
Dieppe Raid (August 1942)
Allies (Britain and commonwealth, US, Soviet Union, China, The Free French and others)
Operation Torch (North African Campaign) (November 1942)
General George S. Patton (1885-1945)
Normandy Landings (June 6, 1944) (D-Day, “Operation Overlord”)
Deal with a mass society as a result of a rise
Thought WWI was the war to end all war, but was just a prelude to WWII
Taking the concept of total war with Western technology and mobilization of all aspects
of society to new highs
Results were devastating, changed the face of the globe in which genocide and nuclear
annihilation became terrible realities
Little debate about what precipitated WWII
Hitler’s desire to kill and enslave caused WWII
By late 1930s, Hitler had rearmed his nation, pulled out of League of Nations
Saw Western nations, France and Britain as weak and without backbone
Both leaders in France and Britain wanted to avoid another war
Hitler’s Nazism preached inevitable war

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Both nations were so scared at the prospects of war, they let Hitler have his way
In the end, they had to go to war anyway
The greatest lesson people took away from the war, the policy of appeasement, peace at
any price
Having gained controlled domestically, Hitler turned to foreign policy
He used same tactics, moved cautiously, prepared to back down as in Germany, faced
almost none
Hitler had two platforms that drove his foreign policy
First was to gain control over all German lands and German speaking people,
remilitarize the Rhineland
Hitler in 1936 marching into Rhineland was a violation of Treaty of Versailles, if the
French had attacked when they remilitarized the Rhineland (which is German territory)
Hitler would have retreated
But France did not
First goal was to incorporate German speaking areas of Austria and Czechoslovakia
Mussolini, scared of Hitler prepared to fight against the Nazis
In 1938, used threats, bullying and propaganda, held a referendum, but Hitler invaded
Austria in 1938, Many Austrians agreed with the Anschluss (Forcible joining of Germany
and Austria together) (Was very popular)
Increasingly contemptuous of Britain and France, Hitler now turned to Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia was pro western democracy, excellent weaponry, strong army, fought
Hitler and stood up against Hitler (used to be part of Austrian-Hungary Empire)
In the Sudetenland (what it was called, Western Germany) was where most of the
Germans in Czechoslovakia were in
But the Czechs kept giving the Nazis in the Sudetenland what they wanted
Looked like there would be a war in the Sudetenland, and so Hitler backed down
The British and French were scared that they would have to interfere and defend
Great Britain flew to talk to Hitler 3 times in 12 days to try to talk to Hitler
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