The Cold War
Berlin in 1945 after collapse of Hitler regime
After surrender, ceases to be a country. Military council runs it (Britain, France, Russia,
America). Occupation zones. Till 1949, Germany is completely occupied without national gov.
May 1945. Signed Keitl. No choice but to sign. He was a field martial.
Paranoia for Berliners.
Checkpoint Charlie=border crossing between parts of Berlin. No mans land on either side of
Creation of Bizonia. Co-op between US and Britain 1946, 7-8 months after end of war. Soviets
wanted to expand. By early 46, Cold war was a reality. Co-op formed because they didn’t feel
they had a choice. Iron curtain mentioned by Churchill at this point. Barbed wire fence only
dismanteled in 1989-1990. US needed attitude check. Had no real interest in helping Germany.
Wanted to keep Germany down and paying reparations. Realized best goal was to create
powerhouse that US can rely on to help keep peace in Europe. French not interested (potential
threat. Why would they want a powerforce nextdoor?) 40 million in Bizone area. US was
pumping $ (Marshall aid aka European recovery plan) into the country. Public/private money to
rebuild industry and est. American presence in Germany/Europe. Soviets not at all interested in
this. Thought it was suspicious. Didn’t allow East Germany/other countries under Soviet
occupation to take US money because they thought it was US form of imperialism. Creation of
International Organizations. 16 countries OEEC. Organization for European Economic Co-
operation. Assistance Act. Balance of power shifted in 1945. Now relying on US aid, meds, etc.
Europe becomes vulnerable. Era of European Politics is over.
Needs functioning local economic system. New currency needed to be made. Black market
involved in all aspects of life. The deutschmark (DM) created. Becomes international reserve
currency. Other govs buy because it holds value well. Price controls (price ceilings, etc. put in
place by gov) eliminated at this point which restores free market, mostly wiping out black
market. Russians angry about this because US didn’t consult them. Unification not going to
happen is what this message said.
Soviets placed emphasis on reparations. Extracting as much as possible to try to regain some
of their funds. Start to take apart equipment in Germany and bring it back to Russia. Common
throughout Soviet occupied Europe. Revolutionary land reform! Take land from Church and
owners and redistribute to poverty-stricken peasants.
De-Nazification more intense in East, but happens all over Germany. Large chunk of German
gov was put into power in the West in gov positions. The easiest way to ruin someone’s
reputation was to label someone a Nazi. Nuremburg trials in the West. To ensure Nazi ideology
wouldn’t resurface. International Military Tribunal launched Nurermburg trials in 1945. 22 men
on trial in Nov. West felt they were most influe