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Hist Notes Sept 16, 2011.docx

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HIST 1002
Christopher Adams

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Sept 16, 2011 HIST Economic changes-1870-1900 -economic Depression on 1873 -Impact on agriculture (crop failure) -what caused this economic depression? -explansion of the industrial revolution -european railways (revolutionary change, ship in materials for revolution/industry. Increases movement of people and troops. Developing a tourist industry, especially England. Bath being the first tourist centre of Europe. Popular in middle class. When railway built, Sussex/Brighton also tourist area. Seaside resort town) -Sergei Witte (1849-1915) (promoted railway system in Russia. Started to create the trans Siberian railway. One of the most iconic systems in the world.) -steel (wasn’t usually in machinery and buildings, but now incorporated. Used in landmark structures like the Eiffel tower. Most important symbol of economic change. Very controversial tower. They thought it was hideous.) -tech -Gustav Eiffel (1832-1923) -Michael Faraday (1791-1867) -Thomas Edison (1847-1931) Eiffel tower-Contemporary Views (1889) -the Committee of Three Hundred -“A disgusting column of bolted tin -“Useless and monstrous” -built for the Paris expo Economic Developments -the role of government -Liberal pro-free trade countries (right of centre, pro business. Pro small government. Wanted to bring down trade barriers as much as possible) -new business structures (raw materials/retail stores. European capitals started to expand.) -vertical integration (Unlike before with small shop keepers, this structure replaced by larger systems) -horizontal Integration (larger clientele) -standard oil -what is the significance of this new business trend? -Department stores -Le Bon Marche (first major department store. Created a new culture of consumerism. Now brand new element of shopping. Window shopping. Mostly hired men, but started to move away from this and allowed women to work. When trying to sell things to women, women know what other women “need” and what men want. Women were already working in offices, but many others thought this destroyed the “family”, and women should be in the home. Became a key emement of 20 century culture Demographic change in Europe -urbanization -European cities in 1900 London pop: 6,480,000 Paris pop: 3,330,000 Berlin pop: 2,707,000 Vienna pop: 1,698,000 (Austria/Hungary big country influentially) St. Petersburg pop: 1,439,000 (trying to westernize) Immigration -migration in Europe -emigration from Europe -1860-1914 -72 percent travelled to N.A. -21 percent to S.A. -7 % to Australia and New Zealand Peasants moving to other countries because of free land (OUT WEST) Ukrainian’s and the Irish, Germans and French, English and Scottish, Dutch (communities), polish, Jews immigrated, Austria/hungary, Croatians, Serbians. Eastern Europeans were portrayed as being uneducated, lazy, different language, “backwards people”, different religion, primitive, rebels (commies), so not really wanted, but needed. Canada was a culturally protestant country
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