German revolt first
1956 stalinary revolt. Bloodiest. Hungary. TIME MAGAZINE ‘57
Josip Tito in Yugoslavia. Lots of tension between him an stalin. Balkin federation. Wanted to rule
independently of stalin. Somewhat succeeded. Wanted to extend influence to Croatia,
Montenegro, Slovenia, Kosovo, Bulgaria, Albania, Romania, Volvodina? etc. Would have been a
counter-weight to the Warsaw pact (would oppose Stalin). Ended with Yugoslavia being
expelled from Cominform on St. Vitus day. Was expelled on National holiday=extra slap in the
face. Creates sense of paranoia.
Purges portrayed differently from different sources. Paranoia of American CIA being
Different between way soviets saw itself than eastern bloc. Thought they were more advanced.
So referred to these countries as people’s democracies. Many executions or imprisonments.
Many absolute commies.
Nameless masses were purged too. 3 classes. Those who have been in prison, those who are,
and those who will be
Walter Ulbricht wants to keep regime afloat after Stalin. Hard line communism. Attempted to
keep it up.
Matyas Rakosi. Claimed he was Stalin’s favourite pupil. Shorter regime
Klement Gottwald in Czechoslovakia. Always hard line Stalinism
Poland= Boleslaw Bierut
Gheorghe Gheorghiuu-Dej in Romania
Stalinization. Political transformation. Merger of left wing parties into commie party. If not, you
were banned. Also economic transformation. 5 year plans. Totally unrealistic. Caused a lot of
suffering. Accusations of sabbatoge, American agent, etc. to make excuses for not making 5
year plan. Many shortages. Co-ordinated through Comecon (council for economic cooperation).
Every country was tasked with certain things. Ex. Lada, Jugo, Shoda, Dacia, Wartburg, Trabant
(response to Volkswagen as a family car company).
Stalin dies and Nikita Khrushcev. Takes a few years to denounce what Stalin did. Claimed Stalin
bastardized communism. He was crude. Respected because not as hard lined as Stalin.
Warsaw pact formed under him. All in eastern bloc under it except Yugoslavia.
Before secret speech by Krushcev. Imre Nagy was revolutionary PM in Hungary. Was reformist
and wanted independent policy. On good terms with Malenkov (soviet PM). Disassembled
secret police. Slowed industrialization. It had been happening at crazy rate. Disbanded
collective farms. They had just gotten their land for the first time, but then it was taken away again. This is why they were upset about collective farms. Tries to raise quality of life. The more
hard lined leaders didn’t like him very much and he was replaced.
Unrest in Poland. Poznan Uprising. Want some kind of freedom (speech/public meetings).
Concern that Moscow will march in if uprising gets out of hand. Poland gets slightly more liberal
reformist leader. Gomulka. Shows to the west that positive changes can come from revolt.
Meetings in Washington. National security council meeting . Nixon is Vice Pres. In US best
interest for Soviet to cru