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HIST 1002 - 23 09 11.docx

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HIST 1002
Christopher Adams

23/09/11  The Structure of the Mass Society o The existence of wealthy elite  Who formed this elite?  Factory owners o The middle-Class  Characterized by diversity  New professionals  White collar workers o Civil servants o Social service workers  Teachers, doctors, politicians, etc...  Embraced Victorian sensibilities o What was and wasn’t ethical o Frugal o Valued education o Had to speak up against social ills  Alcoholism  Public discource o Having etiquette o Dressed well  Preached their values to upper and lower class o Hated the wasteful upper class o Hated alcoholism, violence and lack of education with lower class o Made lots of NFP  Earned their place with hard work o Built their values around meritocracy o o Shared common lifestyles and values  Preached worldview to upper and lower classes  Victorian Britain a model middle-class society o The lower class  Mostly comprised of poor factory workers  Less agrarian workers  Increasingly conscious of their place in society  Labour unions  Worker’s parties o Labour part in UK o Social democrats in Germany o Mass society  More consumerism  Advertising changed  All over the place in Europe  Big banners on the sides of carriages  Huge billboards o Like modern society  Victorian family  Absent fathers  Upper middle class or middle class  Cleanly  Free time o Outings  Social Democrats o Rise of working class and socialist parties o Middle class retreats from overcrowded cities o Urban Villages  Gender rolls   Made up of working class  Helps a rise in socialist parties o German Social Democratic Party (SPD)  Most successful European socialist party  Formed right after they were legalized in 1890  When Bismark was dismissed  Evolution vs. Revolution  August Bebal was the founder o Co ran it with Eduard Bernstein  Evolutionists wanted a more moderate face for the party o Increase support across classes  Increase finance o Be taken more seriously as a political party o Appeal to the generation of youth  Revolutionists wanted to be more radical  Becomes Evolutionist  Eduard Bernstein  Bismarck  Conservative  Was anti Catolic and socialist  Germans had an allegiance to the pope o Popel fallibility  When the pope speaks excathedra  When he talks about religion he is infallible  They don’t usually do it o Bismarck was scared the pope might talk about this  Bismarck closed the Catholic schools  Banned socialist parties and trade unions o Closed down 45 left wing papers o Eastern Europe had socialist parties too o Socialists were aggressive  Militant attitude  Unlike today’s parties  Radical  Actions and words o Britain’s labour movement  Radicalization of trade union movement  Unions wanted to organize all male workers  Opposition to unionization of women o Opposed to women being in the work place at all  Very conservative  Because not as many men would be in work  Will drop wages  Same reason why they are anti-immigration  Family Wage  Workers need to be paid enough to support their entire family  The “Living Wage” o More than minimal wage because it means you can support your family  General strikes  Everyone in a country strikes  A powerful tool o Lots of time/effort to organize  Can result in the collapse of a government   Labour party formed in1900  Labour representatives committee  No actual membership o A club  Ineffective in election o Because of its radicalism  Cooperated with liberal governments from 1906 to 1914 o Appear more mainstream  Ramsay MacDonald forms first Labour government in 1924 o Minority government falls in months o Landmark moment o Dreyfus Affair  Dreyfus Affair 1894  Patriortic officer  Jewish origins  France  Convicted of treason  Emile Zola  “J’accuse!”  Accused French elites of being anti-Semitic  Riots  Dreyfus exonerated in 1906  12 years too late  1990’s until France officially apologizes o The Dreyfus Affair  A French Captain  Found guilty of high treason  No solid evidence presented o Piece of blue paper (the bordereau)  Sentenced to life on Devils Island  A republican and a Jew Dreyfus was an outsider to the other French Captains  After a while the case was re-examined  Dreyfus was pardoned under new government o The Dreyfus affair was used by socialists to overthrow the old government  Rene Waldeck-Rousseau formed a coalition government  Wide spread of political beliefs o Right of centre to left  My notes o Austria Hungary  Most multicultural part of Europe  Duel monarchy  1867 gave Hungary almost equal power to Austrians  Many ethnic minorities which rise up  The Habsburg
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