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Lecture 5

Hist1300 Lecture Five.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIST 1300
Professor
John Maker
Semester
Winter

Description
The German Naval Threat and the Creation of a Canadian Navy 1898- The German Navy begins to grow The Naval Race Heats Up -withdrawl of fleets from distant stations -abandonment of Canadian garrisons -reliance of Japan -naval power measured in Battleships Shooting Themselves in the Foot: The first “all-big-gun” battleship- everyone had to start from scratch. Awaiting the German Threat 1. French and Russian shipbuilding. 2. Italy and AH’s “cool” attitude. 3. Wear performance, lack of support in SA. 4. American competition. Re-evaluating Imperial Defence: -global naval presence is costly -Boer War prompts reevaluation -U.S. amity -The Entente Germany believed was impossible (1904-1907) Changes in Britain: 1906 election (Campbell-Bannerman Liberals) -free trade in Britain -ends the high tide of Imperialism -concerned with domestic reform -“peace, retrenchment and reform” Strategic Reevaluation: 1. Against whom could Britain not hope to defend? 2. Against whom is the Navy most likely to employ? The Effect in Canada -fleet withdrawl -requests for assistance -pressure for self-defense -pressure for the U.S. amity -Laurier preferred the status quo; changes should be left in Canadian hands In 1907- Colonial Conference- Campbell- Bannerman: “the cost of naval defense and the responsibility for the conduct of foreign affairs hang together.” Dreadnought Crisis, 1909 -Exaggerated reports of German naval growith -“we want eight and we wont wait” -pressure falls on Canadian politicians like never before Options for Canadian Contribution 1. An annual contribution of the British government (QC Nationalists) 2. A Canadian navy in; “constant and free cooperation with the imperial forces” (QC Nationalists and ardent Imperialists) 3. An independent Canadian navy (Britain and Imperialists) 4. A one-time monetary gift (a growing trend after 1911) -Laurier rejected monetary contribution -R.L. Borden, advocated a separate navy, accepted the possibility of a gift (before 1911) Criticisms of the Canadian Navy: -imperialist disdain for a “tin pot” navy -it took years to create a navy, the crisis was now! -QC Nationalists wanted status quo -Brit control would undermine principle of parliament deciding level of participation The Navan Service Act, 1910 -Naval service and college to train officers -5 light cruisers and 5 destroyers -as “Canadian” as the militia -could be placed under the Admirality in an emergency (parliament would decide) The 1911 Federal Election -Mackenzie King Campaigning in 1911 -Sir Wilfrid Campaigning in Quebec -Laurier’s last trip west, 1901 Laurier’s Collapse -English Canada: ardently Imperialist (Reciprocity) -French Canada: was anti-imperialist (Navy) -Bourassa/ Borden alliance purely political -For both Borden played the Canadian Nationalist card The Naval Debate, Part 2 1911: A Turning Point -Decade of Conservative and Unionist Rule -Dictated by outside pressures -Shift in powerbase: QC base= Isolationist; ON base= Imperialist Death of the Navy -Laurier’s navy died after 1911 -HMCS Niobe and Rainbow for training and coastal defense -“…while we decide where to build…” The Sides of the Debate IMPERIALISTS: 1. Canada would contribute to Imperial Defense 2. Canada is stronger economically as part of the Empire. 3. Canada is less likely to be attacked if the empire would mobilize in her defense 4. Canada is the stongest and leading member of the Empire; she is a vicarious would power ANTI-IMPERIALISTS: 1. Canada should pay for it’s own defense 2. Canada can make its own economic agreements, including with the USA 3. Canada is bound to fight if Britain’s goes to war anywhere 4. Independent Canadian development is hampered by a dependence of Empire 1912 Visit to London -final formulation of Contribution policy -Churchill: Outlined situat
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