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Hist1300 Lecture Six.docx

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Carleton University
HIST 1300
John Maker

Attrition’s Effect -both sides reach a similar solution -better training -emphasis on the individual/small unit -left in the hands of local leaders Entente Terms 1. Restoration of Belgium 2. Withdrawl from France and Russia 3. “Liberation” of Italians, Czechs, Slovaks, Romanians from foreign territory 4. Liberation of Turkey 5. Alsace-Lorraine to France Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Part 2- 30 Jan 1917 -Britain must be defeated -U-boat production up -Timing: hurry up and win Allied Strategy -continue starving Germany -continue operational pressure -continue manpower and material build-up (results in calls for more colonial soldiers) -wait for the USA Arras Offensive -designed to pin the enemy -lack of French success -no breakthrough planned (for reserves) -German willingness to withdraw -Vimy forms part of this… Canadians entrenching near Vimy Ridge, April 1917 The Battle of Vimy Ridge: April 9- 12 1917 -Canadian divisions attack together -“New” artillery and infantry tactics -one of the few major victories of 1917 -distinction of Arthur Currie -popular English-Canadian nationalist myth The Battle of Vimy Ridge was one of Canada’s proudest moments of the war and an important victory. Explaining Vimy -limited, specific, containable objective -corps up to strength -arty to cut wire and counterbattery effective -creeping barrage -bit and hold (smaller tactical objective) -a good achievement made “better” by British and Canadian PR; focus opinion on success Sir Arthur Currie became the first Canadian general to command the Canadian Corps overseas in battle. Passchendaele -Objective: Belgain coast and the high ground -Method; Attrition -Haig to replace decimated Austrailians -Currie predicted 16,000 casualties -last of the Attrition Battles America Joins the War -idealism -14 points -Lusitania, 1915 -Unrestricted Sub War, Jan 1917 -Zimmerman Telegram -recovery of Entente loans AEF Growth -6 April 1918= 2000 -Belleau Wood- June= 20000 -July- Chateau Thierry= 250,000 -8 August= Amiens=50,000 -Mid Sept. – St. Michael Salient= 500,000 The German Spring Offensive -blockade effects -end of the war in the east -AEF buildup -completely exhausted German Army Amiens- 8-19 August -French, British, Canadian, Australian battle -Materially overwhelm the demoralized German army -“Black day of the German Army” The Battle of Amiens on 8 August 1918 was the beginning of the end for Germany. The End of the War -last 100 days… Canadain Corps at spearhead -Armisticel Nov. 11, 1918 -Treaty of Versilles Germany Army’s Destruction -100 Days begins 20 August -Headlong German retreat -Series of difficult, costly victories -German divisions destroyed as formations -it was being destroyed Gas casualties faced lingering conditions and long-term damage to the eyes, skin, and lungs. Shell Shock -supposed causes: physical and/ or weakness -unexpectedly horrific conditions -romanticism vs. mechanized warfare -treatments: electroshock, hard treatment, cold water, rest, psychotherapy -domestic abuse, alcoholism, a high divorce rate, reluctance to re-enter society The Numbers Total Soldiers Mobilized: 620,000 Conscripts: 108,000 Served Overseas: 425,000 Conscripts Send Abroad: 48,000 Total Killed: 61,000 Wounded: 173,000 Pre-ward population: approx. 8 million Current percentage – 265,517 (all of Saskatoon) The cost of war was high. Soldiers were blinded, maimed, lost limbs, their hearing, and were horrible disfigured. Women in the War -Nurses in the CAMC- 2800 women (Hospital ships, overseas in hospitals, with field ambulance units in combat zones) -Voluntary Organizations (Canadian Patriotic Fund, YMCA, Salvation Army) -Women enter the workforce (business, industry, agriculture) The War at Home French Canadians were initially supportive o the war as the survival of France and Britain was deemed important to Canada. For Borden, the war provided an important opportunity for Canada to expand its influence within the empire. The War Measures Act was passed in August 1914 which gave the government the power to suspend civil liberties and to regulate an area of society deemed essential to the war effort. The average Canadian joined up because the war appeared to offer the opportunity for advent
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