HIST 1300 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Quebec Act, Cape Breton Island, American Civil War

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10 Aug 2016
Oct 15
North American dilemma
-for 150yrs Britain and France were fighting over north America
-1750’s has 7 years’ war gives Britain a huge victory
-however how this continent will be governed leads to another war, American Revolution
-however this war still doesn’t resolve it
-battle of the Plains of Abraham alters Canada’s fate. Ends seven years’ war.
7years war
-7 years war starts 1754 in the south of Lake Michigan. Then moves to Europe.
-ends in 1763(in Europe)
-overwhelming victory by British
-the French were more prepared then English, they had more indigenous allies. They had an effective
leader, Montcalm.
-in 1758 new prime minister in Britain. The war has now shifted to Europe. The new PM decided to beat
france in NA so that their forces will be depleted in Europe.
-cape Breton Island victory almost instantaneously
-1759 they concentrated their force in the heart of New France, near Montreal and Quebec city.
-1759 battle of the Plains of Abraham. September 15th. Wolffe and Montclam.
-Montcalm is French noble. Professional soldier, renowned for bravery. 1756 he’s made general of the
French forces in NA. Doesn’t trust the Canadian militia and native allies. Favours aggressive approach,
does it with success at first. Is homesick. Spring of 1759 he is on the defensive, Quebec becomes his
strong point.
-James Wolfe is only 32 during Plains of Abraham. Very experienced. Sick in 1759, melancholic, inclined
to depression. Sends troops up a cliff to the Plains of Abraham, at the top a French century waiting for
them. So he sends the Scottish regiments who speak French to fool the French and get by them.
-Montcalm attacks immediately on September 13th to push back the British attack.
-Wolfe is killed in the battle; Montcalm is wounded and dies the next day.
-1760 British attack Montreal and accept their surrender
-Montcalm wasn’t immortalized because he wasn’t praised or loved by the people. He also lost the war.
-General Wolfe wasn’t immortalized either because he was the conqueror; the American’s were more
concerned with their own heroes and scots didn’t have as much respect for him as he had for them.
Celebrated in England, but not in Canada.
Articles of capitulation (to establish end of war in NA) 1760
-New France authorities surrender all their land to the British.
-The British are fairly generous to French citizens, they offer them to go back to France or stay and
become British subjects. Civil law is continued, right to practice Catholicism, recognizes right to
aboriginals to practice religion.
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