Theodore Roosevelt, “Peace and Expansion” (1899)
1) Roosevelt argues that peace must be won through war. How does his idea of savagery
(or barbarism) and civilization factor into this?
2) How does his understanding of war and pacifism relate to his ideas about manliness?
In his nomination for the Medal of Honor was very important to him and his manhood.
Fascination with putting himself in the way of danger. In 1885 in Dakota territory, knocked out
burly man with 4 pistols for calling him four-eyes. Almost died several times in 1912. Towards
end of life, trip to Amazon and got fever. Led to his death because of his sickness.
Expansion through warfare is a good thing. War to extinguish barbarism. Expansion of civilized
powers equals peace.
Pg 3. “growing infrequency of war between uncivilized nations” more civilizations expand
(civ=peace), less barbarianism exists. Does not see WWI coming.
As a child, his father pushed him to go to war to become tough. Achieve manliness through
fighting against barbarianism. Split time between civilization and the western front. Duty to root
out barbarism b/c way to freedom/peace. Need to expand to do this. Violence in the service of
Words such as manly, pacifists/weakling, coward (calls Wilson this up until went to war in 1917)
“scant attention is paid to the weak/coward…” pg 3. Manly person preaches peace but realizes
that war is necessary to reach this.
Wilson’s 14 Points (1918)
1) How does this document show evidence at Wilson’s progressive internationalism? (as
opposed to isolationism-staying at home)
2) Do Wilson’s ideas share anything in common with Roosevelt or Bourne? Do they differ?
What should the world do after the war is what this doc concerns. Wanted to form general
association of nations.